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Sustainable Development Goal 4 presents a significant broadening of the education agenda compared with that of the Millennium Development Goals; it is aimed at universal enrolment, from pre-primary to upper-secondary levels (rather than just primary), and emphasizes learning outcomes, such as higher labour market remuneration, but it also fosters economic growth through human capital accumulation and reduces poverty. At the same time, Goal 4 calls for equity in education opportunities, through additional support for marginalized children to gain access to school and catch up with their peers in learning. Among previous studies on education costing, the global estimate for low- and lower-middle income countries varies from $191 billion (UNESCO, 2015) to $311 billion (Education Commission, 2016) annually for the period 2015-2030.

Sustainable Development Goal 4 presents a significant broadening of the education agenda compared with that of the Millennium Development Goals; it is aimed at universal enrolment, from pre-primary to upper-secondary levels (rather than just primary), and emphasizes learning outcomes, such as higher labour market remuneration, but it also fosters economic growth through human capital accumulation and reduces poverty. At the same time, Goal 4 calls for equity in education opportunities, through additional support for marginalized children to gain access to school and catch up with their peers in learning. Among previous studies on education costing, the global estimate for low- and lower-middle income countries varies from $191 billion (UNESCO, 2015) to $311 billion (Education Commission, 2016) annually for the period 2015-2030.

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