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While the international community has been largely successful in averting interstate conflicts since the end of the World War II and the Cold War, the rise in intrastate conflicts is disconcerting. Conflicts undermine human development, weaken social cohesion and institutional mechanisms, thereby impeding sustainable development. The Institute for Economics and Peace estimated that in 2016 the cost of violence containment for Afghanistan and Myanmar reached a staggering 52.1% and 8.4% of GDP, respectively. In terms of fatalities, around 167,000 people lost their lives to conflict in 2015. Conflicts “reflect not just a problem for development, but a failure of development”.

MPFD Policy Brief No. 78: The nexus between peace and sustainable development in Asia-Pacific countries with special needs

Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division +66 2 288-1234 [email protected]