Older persons, particularly the oldest-old, are the fastest growing population segment in India and many of them require or will require long-term care in the future. The paper discusses policies on population ageing in India, such as the National Policy on Older Persons and the National Programme for Health Care for the Elderly. It further discusses the health status of older persons in India and projects future care needs. Finally, it discusses the prevailing provision of long-term care for older persons through the family as well as institutional care provided by the State, the private sector and civil society. The paper closes with policy recommendations.