National governments are aware that industrialisation can lead to environmental degradation. In fact, policymakers across the region have made substantive efforts to introduce policies that curb environmental impacts, many of which are specifically targeted at industrial water pollution (see Annex, Table 1).
These efforts are also demonstrated through water and environmental legislation aimed at protecting the environment in the face of rapid industrialisation. In Bangladesh the National Water Policy (1999) and the Bangladesh Water Act (2013) delineate policy principles regarding industrial water use. In Cambodia the Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) for 2014–2018 states the importance of protecting natural resources and sustainable development and outlines tangible policies to address water pollution. In Lao PDR the Water Resources Law was updated in 2017, aiming to improve the sustainability of Lao PDR’s water resources. It is expected to influence the monitoring, management and planning of the country’s vast rivers. Myanmar’s 2012 Environmental Conservation Law established ambient water quality standards for surface water, marine water and groundwater. In Pakistan the 2018 National Water formulates projects and master plans for water conservation, water development and water management. In Indonesia the Environmental Protection and Management Law (2001) encompasses a green industry standard, punishment against intentional water pollution, subsidies on preserving environmental functions and water pollution sanctions. Finally, in Viet Nam the Law on Environmental Protection (2014) established special funds to support pollution control, an effluent permit system, mandatory compensation and remediation of environmental damages.