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Environment and Development Division +66 2 288 1234 [email protected]

Public Toilets in Hetauda Municipality of Nepal


1. Problems addressed

One of the major issues in the Hetauda Bus Park, one of the main bus stations in the country that serves as a transit point for passengers traveling to the border point of Birgunji, Kathmandu, or other cities, was the poor quality of toilet facilities. To upgrade and improve the sanitation facilities, Hetauda Municipality constructed new public toilets in 1992 through a loan provided by the Town Development Fund, supported by KfW Germany. Following the completion of the facility an independent contractor was hired to care for the facility. Failing to live up to his agreement the facilities became rundown through poor upkeep and management.
In 2002 Hetauda Municipality transferred the responsibility of the toilet facility to Adarsha Neighborhood Development Agency (NDA), through a public-private partnership. The municipality provided Adarsha NDA with a grant of NRs 7,000 plus an interest free loan of 2,22,000 for the extensive renovation of the toilet facility. Over a period of several months the toilet facilities were renovated and placed back into full operation. The responsibility of day to day activities are shared by an executive officer and the Ministry of Local Development, which operates in a partnership arrangement between Hetauda Municipality and Adarsha NDA.

2. Activities

Adarsha NDA manages all activities of the Hetauda NDA such as monitoring, overall operation including care and upkeep, collection of fees, financial and administrative management. In addition Adarsha NDA conducts committee meetings, consulting with stakeholders, resolving disputes, and planning activities for improvement.
Revenues are collected through user fees and monthly charges. This revenue increased by 96% in the four year period 2002-2006 The average annual increase in revenue from the user charges/fees stood at 24.31% in 2003-04, 38.25% in 2004/05 and 14% in 2005-06.
The relationship between Hetauda Municipality and the Public Toilet Renovation, Operation and Management Project has been a successful harmonious arrangement. Both parties have worked closely with one another during the renovation and construction period. All issues and obstacles were discussed with representatives of the partners and user,, then solved as they arose.
The management committee is responsible to oversee the operation procedures of the public toilet facility to ensure that all activities are followed as per the provisions of the contract. They submit a quarterly report based on suggestions and future liabilities concerned with the facility.
Adarsha NDA is accountable to maintain its own accounts of revenues generated through the public toilet facility. They in turn prepare a report of the daily and monthly collection charges including expenses related to the operation and maintenance of the facility. A quarterly report is presented to Hetauda Municipality and to date they have fulfilled their responsibilities.

3. Outcomes

The public toilet facility has offered services to the rich and poor from the transit passengers to the shop owners in the nearby shopping complex. Job opportunities have provided poor families work during the renovation and after, through small business operations at the facility selling tea, fruits and vegetables.
Following the completion of renovation and construction by Adarsha NDA, the facilities are running on a 24 hour basis. The cleaning staff of three cares for the facility at all hours to make sure the toilets are clean both inside and outside. They ensure there is an adequate supply of water in the toilets and bathroom and collect user fees from each customer.
The objectives and goals of this project were fully met. The partnership between Adarsha NDA and Hetauda Municipality with the renovation and construction of the toilet facilities at Hetauda Bus Park has been proven a success.
The facilities have been fully upgraded with the new management under Adarsha NDA control. Their effectiveness in customer service and management has seen an increase in revenues generated by the facility. The charges of the toilet service through daily users fees and monthly charged collected through local business use has risen 113% over the four years period since they took over management of the facility. In 2003 the revenue was NRs 294,820.00 and by 2006 this amount rose to NRs. 628,376.00.
Environmental conditions both inside and outside of the facility have completely changed. Small business operators at the facility, mainly poor families have benefited from the toilet facility since the renovation.
The Hetauda Bus Park toilet facility made efficient use of available resources to achieve the end result of providing a service to passengers of the bus park.
Through the partnership with Adarsha NDA and Hetauda Municipality they agreed to focus upon capital investment for the renovation and construction process through a grant and no interest loan.
The particular features that have made this practice distinct and innovative include the following: Managerial Advance, financial arrangement, nature of partnership, level of cooperation from the community residents, and the social responsibility of providing an efficient service that is available to everyone in the community.

4. Sustainability

The sustainability of any project depends upon the working relationship of all parties involved and the nature of the project.
Under the direction of Adarsha NDA the project took a new direction compared to thepast contractor. From the beginning, Adarsha NDA proved its reliability and ability to work in an efficient manner. Upon completion of the renovation and construction process, the management ensured that the facility would be run efficiently and they proved this.

5. Replicability and up scaling

The possibility of replicating this project in other municipalities is very promising. Bus parks and shopping complexes are ideal locations where there is a flow of people and business trade. Not only is this suitable for other municipalities in Nepal but for other countries as well.
Although the Hetauda toilet facility was set up on a small scale, the project could be up scaled according to the needs of the location and the number of daily users.
The Hetauda toilet facility has been successful due to it responsive management that has ensured quality service in operation and up keep. These would also need to be taken into consideration from other municipalities when they initiate their own project.
In addition each municipality should retain the ownership of these public facilities to ensure quality of service, equal opportunity for employment and ability to meet any challenges that may arise from operational to financial.
Regular monitoring of operational activities, inspections and corrective measures as per the needs has been a distinctive feature of this project.

6. Contact information

Hetauda Municipality, Hetauda, Makawanpur
Mr. Madman Bhujel, Executive Officer, Hetauda Municipality
Telephone number:-977-1-057 520377,523045.
Email:[email protected] Website:

Adarsh NDA, Hetauda, Makawanpur
Mr.Ramesh Ratna Sthapit, Chairperson Adarsh NDA Hetauda.
Telephone number: 977-1-057522600, 9845029212

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Executive Summary
Hetauda poster

Environment and Development Division +66 2 288 1234 [email protected]