Japan Demographic Data

(Source: World Population Prospects, The 2015 Revision)
Total Population: 


127 million (2015)


Total Fertility Rate (TFR): 

Number of children a woman might have in her lifetime


1.4 children per woman (2010-2015)



Life expectancy at birth: 


Men:             80 years  (2010-2015)

Women:        87 years  (2010-2015)




Older persons, 65+ years old: 



Older persons, 80+ years old: 



Old-age support ratio: 

Number of working-age persons (aged 15-64) per each older person (aged 65 and over) 


*A smaller workforce and an ageing population imply that the ratio of workers to non-workers will fall. However, this is only indicative, as it does not take into account of people over 15 still in school, and people over 65 who are working. In addition, if women participated more actively in the economy, the burdens would be further reduced.



Governmental Resources


Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (厚生労働省)

http://www.mhlw.go.jp/index.shtml (Japanese)

http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/ (English)


Cabinet Office (内閣府)

http://www.cao.go.jp/ (Japanese)

http://www.cao.go.jp/index-e.html (English)


Statistics Bureau of Japan (総務省統計局)

http://www.stat.go.jp/index.htm  (Japanese)

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/  (English)


National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (国立社会保障・人口問題研究所)

http://www.ipss.go.jp/ (Japanese)

http://www.ipss.go.jp/index-e.asp (English)


Publications by UN entities and other international organizations


Aging, Economic Growth, and Old-Age Security in Asia, ADB, 2012

Population Ageing in East and South-East Asia: Current Situation and Emerging Challenges, UNFPA, 2006

Living Longer: Ageing, Development and Social Protection, UNRISD, 2004

Reconciling work and family: Issues and policies in Japan, Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 5., ILO, 2003



The World Bank


Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies, The World Bank, 2014

Health Systems in East Asia: What Can Developing Countries Learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?, The World Bank, 2005





Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators, OECD, 2014

A Good Life in Old Age?: Monitoring and Improving Quality in Long-term Care, OECD, 2013

OECD Economic Surveys: Japan 2013, OECD, 2013

OECD Labour Force Statistics 2013, OECD, 2013

Activation Policies in Japan, OECD, 2010

Health-Care Reform in Japan: Controlling Costs, Improving Quality and Ensuring Equity, OECD, 2009

Reforming the Labour Market in Japan to Cope with Increasing Dualism and Population Ageing, OECD, 2008

Trends in Severe Disability Among Elderly People: Assessing the Evidence in 12 OECD Countries and the Future Implications, OECD, 2007

OECD Employment Outlook 2007, OECD, 2007

The Aggregate and Structural Impact of Ageing on Financial Markets: Some Quantitative Assessments, OECD, 2005

Ageing and Employment Policies: Japan 2004, OECD, 2004

Retirement Behaviour in OECD Countries: Impact of Old-Age Pension Schemes and other Social Transfer Programmes, OECD, 2004

The Retirement Effects of Old-Age Pension and Early Retirement Schemes in OECD Countries, OECD, 2003

The Evolving Retirement Income Package: Trends in Adequacy and Equality in Nine OECD Countries, OECD, 2002

Getting Older, Getting Poorer?: A Study of the Earnings, Pensions, Assets and Living Arrangements of Older People in Nine Countries, OECD, 2002

Ageing and Income: Financial Resources and Retirement in 9 OECD Countries, OECD, 2001




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