China Demographic Data

(Source: World Population Prospects, The 2015 Revision)
Total Population: 

1,376 million (2015)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR): 

Number of children a woman might have in her lifetime

1.6 children per woman (2010-2015)

Life expectancy at birth: 

Men:             74 years (2010-2015)

Women:        77 years (2010-2015)

Older persons, 65+ years old: 



Older persons, 80+ years old: 

Old-age support ratio: 

Number of working-age persons (aged 15-64) per each older person (aged 65 and over) 

*A smaller workforce and an ageing population imply that the ratio of workers to non-workers will fall. However, this is only indicative, as it does not take into account of people over 15 still in school, and people over 65 who are working. In addition, if women participated more actively in the economy, the burdens would be further reduced.


Governmental Resources


China National Committee on Aging (全国老龄工作委员会办公室:中国老龄门户) (Chinese) (English)


Ministry of Civil Affairs (民政部) (Chinese)


National Health and Family Planning Commission (国家卫生和计划生育委员会) (Chinese) (English)


National Development and Reform Commission (国家发展和改革委员会)  (Chinese)  (English)


National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局)  (Chinese) (English)



Hong Kong, China


Elderly Commission (安老事务委员会) (Chinese) (English)


Social Welfare Department (香港特别行政区政府社会福利署) (Chinese) (English)


Department of Health (香港特别行政区政府卫生署) (Chinese) (English)


Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) (香港特别行政区政府统计处) (Chinese) (English)



Macao, China


Social Welfare Bureau (澳门特别行政区政府社会工作局) (Chinese) (English)


Social Security Fund (澳门特别行政区政府社会保障基金) (Chinese) (English)


Bureau of health (澳门特别行政区政府卫生局) (Chinese)


Statistics and Census Service(澳门特别行政区政府统计暨普查局) (Chinese) (English)


Publications by UN entities and other international organizations




Long-term care of older persons in China, ESCAP Working paper serices, 2015, ESCAP





Demographic ageing and employment in China, ILO, 2010

Perspectives on the Social Security System of China, ILO, 2006





China and UNFPA: 30 Years of Cooperation on Population and Development, UNFPA

Population Ageing in East and South-East Asia: Current Situation and Emerging Challenges, UNFPA, 2006





Changing demands, emerging providers: New directions in social policy in China, Project Brief, February 2016, UNRISD



World Bank


China's Pension System: A Vision, World Bank, 2013

The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China: Challenges and Prospects, World Bank, 2012

The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective, World Bank, 2011

Equity and Public Governance in Health System Reform: Challenges and Opportunities for China, World Bank, 2011

Reforming China's Rural Health System, World Bank, 2010

Can China's Rural Elderly Count on Support from Adult Children? Implications of Rural-to-Urban Migration, World Bank, 2010

China’s Marriage Market and Upcoming Challenges for Elderly Men, World Bank, 2010

The Incidence of Public Spending on Healthcare, World Bank, 2007

Health Systems in East Asia: What Can Developing Countries Learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?, World Bank, 2005





Challenges and Opportunities of Population Aging in the People's Republic of China, ADB, 2014

Aging, Economic Growth, and Old-Age Security in Asia, ADB, 2012

Pension Systems in East and Southeast Asia: Promoting Fairness and Sustainability, ADB, 2012

Pension Systems and Old-Age Income Support in East and Southeast Asia: Overview and Reform Direction, ADB, 2011

The Socioeconomic Implications of Population Aging in the People's Republic of China, ADB, 2010

Population Aging and Long-Term Health Care in the People's Republic of China, ADB, 2010

Reforming the Rural Pension System in the People's Republic of China, ADB, 2009





Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators, OECD, 2014

Providing Greater Old-Age Security in China, OECD, 2010

OECD Economic Surveys: China 2010, OECD, 2010

Pension Reform in China: Progress and Prospects, OECD, 2007

OECD Employment Outlook 2007, OECD, 2007






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