Annotated list of Web resources on PPPs in infrastructure development
On this Website you will find a fair amount of resources on PPPs with a focus on Asia and the Pacific: Online courses, training materials, publications, country reports, links to PPP Units, etc.. Please check out the links on the left bar. Below please find an annotated guide to useful external Web resources. It is also available as PDF file (PDF, Status: Nov. 2007).
Asian Development Bank
- Asian Development Bank (2000). Developing Best Practices for Promoting Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure: Power, (Manila, ADB), available here.
This report is one of a series of five commissioned by the Bank to identify and recommend best practices to be followed and specific steps to be taken, by developing member countries in order to encourage both private sector investment and competition in infrastructure development. This report focuses on the power sector. There are similar reports that cover the road, water supply, airport and air traffic control, and port sectors.
- Asian Development Bank (2000). Developing Best Practices for Promoting Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure: Road, (Manila, ADB), available here.
- Asian Development Bank, Japan Bank for International Cooperation and World Bank, (2005). Connecting East Asia: A new framework for infrastructure, Tokyo, ADB, (PDF). This report is a contribution to the ongoing debates about the role of infrastructure in promoting growth and reducing poverty. It also provides estimated annual investment needs in infrastructure in East Asian countries and political story of PPPs.
Provides resourceful documents including:
- Fernholz, Fernando and Rosemary Fernholz. Public Private Partnerships for Municipal Governments - Discussion Paper, available here.
This discussion paper is meant to help local and national government officials identify major issues relevant to PPP decision making in the area of infrastructure provision and finance. The issues focus on the nature of PPP's that bring multiple benefits and distinctive risks, the wide range and complexity of modalities and processes, and partnership responsibilities and demands.
- Designing and Implementing an Option for Private Sector Participation in Water and Sanitation. Available here. The procedural issues discussed in this toolkit are most relevant for arrangements in which the private sector takes on a substantial role-management contracts, leases, build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracts, concessions, or divestitures. The toolkit focuses on such areas as the structure of the government unit set up to manage the design and implementation of a private sector arrangement, the hiring of consultants to assist with the process, the steps in the process and the critical path through these steps, and the design and management of bidding for the private sector contract.
- Toolkits for Private Participation in Water and Sanitation: What a Private Sector Arrangement Should Cove. Available here. The toolkit provides checklists of the issues that should be covered in three basic kinds of contract: the concession contract, the build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract, and the management contract. Some of these issues may be covered in existing laws and so would not need to be addressed in the contract. Rather than attempt to provide model contractual language (which would be unlikely to apply in all the vastly differing circumstances that countries face), the checklists set out questions to which contracts and supporting regulations should provide answers.
- Selecting an Option for Private Sector Participation in Water and Sanitation. Available here. Designed for governments to use as they begin to look for a private partner, this toolkit sets out the issues that a government must work through to identify which kind of private sector arrangement best meets its needs and circumstances.
- Developing Best Practices for Promoting Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure. Available here. This report identifies best practices and specific steps that developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) can take to encourage both private sector investment and competition in the power sector. Overall, the objective was to identify best practices that would benefit electricity consumers. In addition to power generation, this report evaluates an area that is only minimally present in the DMCs, namely private sector investment in power transmission and distribution (T&D).
- Hodges, John, Unsolicited Proposals - Competitive Solutions for Private Infrastructure, available here.
This Note looks at systems some governments have used to transform unsolicited proposals for private infrastructure projects into competitively tendered projects. It focuses on the policies that Chile, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, and South Africa have adopted for managing such proposals.
- Public-Private Partnership Manual. Available here. The manual systematically guides public and private parties through the phases of the regulated PPP project cycle for national and provincial government, unpacking policy and providing procedural clarity as it does so. It draws on South African project experience to date and on best international practice, without infringing on the authority of accounting officers and authorities. It sets rigorous risk-assessment standards by which government will make affordable project choices that best leverage private investment for quality public services.
- European Union (2004). Resource Book on PPP Case Studies, PDF.
This is a resource book with 26 interesting PPP case studies in the water and transport sectors from EU member and other countries. The cases include successes and failures as valuable lessons can be learnt from both. A number of important lessons are drawn from the cases and are presented in the context of assisting practitioners in considering options and possible solutions to individual situations.
- European Union (2003). Guidelines for Successful Public-Private Partnerships, PDF. These Guidelines are designed as a practical tool for PPP practitioners in the public sector. They are not meant to provide a complete methodology but are regarded as a guide to the identification and development of key issues that should be considered in the development of successful PPP projects.
- HM Treasury PPP Homepage
- HM Treasury (2007). Standardisation of PFI Contracts, PDF.
- HM Treasury (2006). Value for Money Assessment Guide, PDF.
The value for money assessment guidance highlights different issues that procuring authorities should consider in establishing what the driving factors for VfM will be in their particular projects. It sets out the process and methodology to be used in considering whether the factors driving VfM will be realized through the use of PFI procurement.
- HM Treasury (2007). Quantitative Assessment User Guide, PDF.
This user guide serves as an instruction manual for using the accompanying PFI Quantitative Evaluation Spreadsheet (the “Spreadsheet”). The Spreadsheet has been developed as a tool to assist Procuring Authorities undertake a quantitative analysis to support the VfM decision as to whether to use PFI or conventional procurement.
- HM Treasury (2006). PFI: strengthening long-term partnerships, Stationary Office, London, PDF.
This confirms that the Government sees PFI continuing to play a small but important role in the overall objective of delivering modernized public services.
- HM Treasury (1997). The Green Book: Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government, Treasury guidance, The Stationery Office, London, PDF.
The principles of appraisal and evaluation, as set out in this guide, apply to any activity - whether a project, programme, or policy - which entails spending or saving money or otherwise changing the ways in which resources are used. Guidance is provided on basic principles and on many broader technical issues for which there is a common interpretation of good practice.
- MIGA Infrastructure Web site.
The web site provides useful information on investment guarantee guide and other relevant information.
- MIGA undated, Investment Guarantee Guide, PDF. The guide provides helpful information to applicants concerning eligibility of projects, what risks are covered and how to apply etc.
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
- NHAI Website
- Model Concession Agreement for Small Road Projects up to Rs.100 Crore, PDF.
- Model Concession Agreement for Annuity Based Project - developed as a sample for Panagarh - Palsit project, PDF. The 147 page document provides a model agreement that can be used for developing similar agreements for other projects
- Concession Agreement for projects Rs.100 Crores and above: Updated version as on 23.03.2000, PDF.
Partnerships Victoria, Australia
- Website. Partnership Victoria is the PPP policy of the State Government of Victoria, Australia. The policy, introduced in 2000, provides the framework for a whole-of-government approach to the provision of public infrastructure and related ancillary services through public-private partnerships. The website is one of the most resourceful websites and provides number of high quality PPP resources.
- Investment Evaluation: Policy and guidelines, PDF. It represents the State Government's policy position on the evaluation of potential investments. The guidelines outline an approved approach for investment evaluation covering broad principles and technical issues. They are intended to assist officials in departments and public bodies who have responsibility for the appraisal and evaluation of investment proposals for infrastructure and capital assets.
- Public Sector Comparator, Available here. This technical note provides detailed guidance on the construction and application of the Public Sector Comparator (PSC), which is essentially the government’s financial benchmark for the project. Also see Supplementary Note below.
- Practitioner’s Guide, PDF. The Guide addresses the what, why and how questions in relation to PPP projects; outlines the approach to key commercial issues (e.g. payment structures and bid evaluation); and outlines the public process issues (e.g. public interest test, probity, and disclosure).
- Risk Allocation and Contractual Issues, PDF. This guide outlines the background methodology for risk allocation; describes major types of project risks and contractual issues; and sets out the government-preferred approach for each risk. Although in many ways it reflects the policy of the State Government of Victoria, the fundamental principles remain valid for any situations.
- Contract Management Guide. Available here. A very large document for downloading. This Guide provides public sector managers with principles and tools to support effective contract management in Partnerships Victoria projects. There are also few other useful documents available from the website.
The National Council for Public-Private Partnerships, USA
Public-Private Infrastructuer Advisory Facility (PPIAF)
- PPIAF Website. PPIAF is a technical assistance facility aimed at helping developing countries to improve the quality of their infrastructure through private sector involvement. The infrastructure services eligible for its assistance include electricity; natural gas; water and sewerage; solid waste; telecommunications; railways; ports; airports and roads. The website contains a range of useful documents, research papers, country/sector reports, project database and manuals/toolkits. It also contains a selection of good/innovative practices related to private sector involvement in infrastructure in developing countries.
- Hodges, John T. and Georgina Dellacha (2007). “Unsolicited infrastructure proposals: How some countries introduce competition and transparency”, Gridlines No. 19, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), PDF.
Unsolicited proposals for infrastructure projects from private investors can introduce innovative ideas—but also risks, such as opportunities for corruption. Some countries disallow unsolicited proposals. Others manage them in ways that introduce competition and transparency. Governments’ decision to allow unsolicited proposals should depend on individual circumstances and overall development policies, but when they do allow them, governments will have several important issues to consider.
- Bhatia, Bhavna and Neeraj Gupta (2006). “Lifting constraints to public-private partnerships in South Asia”, Gridlines No. 6, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), PDF.
For countries in South Asia, bridging gaps in infrastructure is a key to achieving goals for growth and poverty reduction. Over the years governments have underinvested in infrastructure assets and especially in maintaining them. Private investment has also been limited. Today policymakers increasingly recognize that public-private partnerships in infrastructure offer the most promise for developing infrastructure and improving services. How to ensure that such partnerships can succeed? Act on critical policy, regulatory, and institutional reforms, pay close attention to the design of transactions, and tackle key constraints to private participation.
- How to Hire Expert Advice on Private Sector Involvement in Infrastructure: A Toolkit for Policymakers. Available here.
This Toolkit helps government officials hire and manage economic consultants, financial advisors and legal experts, as well as other specialists when forming public-private partnerships. It also contains an executive summary for senior officials.
- Public-Private Options for Developing, Operating, and Maintaining Highways: A Toolkit for Policymakers. Available here.
It is a multimedia product created to help policy makers identify alternative options for engaging the private sector in road development, maintenance, operation, and financing. It provides guidance to set up project characteristics with regard to economic and pricing considerations, risk allocation principles and financing mechanisms, packaging of road segments, and tasks and responsibilities for both public and private partners.
- Toolkit on Market-Based Approaches in Private Sector Provision of Bus Services. Available here. This Toolkit is designed to help national and city policy makers explore their alternatives for improving urban bus transport services. It provides a series of benchmarks and reform options according to city objectives. It also contains suggestions for designing legislation, regulation and regulatory frameworks, enabling rules, and procedural guides and other things.
- Toolkit for Water and Sanitation Reform. Available here. This Toolkit provides options for the design of policies to facilitate the delivery of good quality water and sanitation services to the poor. It highlights the need for tariffs, investment, stakeholder consultation, and regulatory policies to ensure the affordability and sustainability of those services.
- Port Reform Toolkit. Available here. This updated Toolkit draws on industry experience from the past two decades. It includes industry trends, new case studies, checklists for preparing and executing concessions, module on social dialogue and labor restructuring in ports, a financial model and more. It is designed to help government officials choose options for private sector participation and analyze their implications.
- Review of Risk Mitigation Instruments for Infrastructure Financing and Recent Trends and Development. PDF. The paper reviews risk mitigation instruments (i.e. guarantees and insurance) used in the financing of public and private infrastructure projects in developing countries. It also summarizes the characteristics of major instruments and providers, discusses recent trends and development in meeting risk mitigation needs, and presents 18 transaction cases and the instruments offered by 30 multilateral/bilateral institutions.
- Country Framework Reports (CFR's) are a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for private sector involvement in infrastructure. A country framework report provides a comprehensive overview of a country's general environment for private participation in infrastructure. Based on this assessment, it then outlines recommendations and an action plan to help guide governments in putting in place the laws, policies, and institutions needed to attract private investment. Available here.
World Bank Group
- World Bank Website
- Delmon, Jeff (2007). Mobilizing Private Finance with IBRD/IDA Guarantees to Bridge the Infrastructure Funding Gap, Finance, Economics and Urban Development Department, Sustainable Development Network, World Bank, PDF. This paper describes the guarantees that the World Bank uses to promote private finance for infrastructure. It seeks to demystify these products: partial risk guarantees (PRGs) and partial credit guarantees (PCGs), and help the reader to make a better assessment of when a guarantee would be a useful addition to a project and which product would be the most appropriate.
- Estache, Antonio and Strong, John (2000)."The Rise, the Fall, and . . . the Emerging Recovery of Project Finance in Transport", World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2385, PDF. Many of the long-established features of project finance have come under attack or have been modified so that old definitions and approaches have given way to new roles for governments and development institutions. At the same time, the private sector has had to adjust to new demands from investors in terms of financial structures, required returns, and risk allocation and mitigation. This paper provides a primer on project finance for government officials and transport regulators.
- Kerf, Michel, et.al. 1998. “Concessions for Infrastructure: A Guide to Their Design and Award.” World Bank Technical Paper No. 399. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, PDF.
- Klein, Michael, Jae So, and Ben Shin (1996). Transaction Costs in Private Infrastructure Projects--Are They Too High?, Viewpoint Note No. 95, The World Bank Group, PDF. Provides the sources of transaction costs in a PPP deal and their likely amount in terms of total project cost and why they may vary considerably from one project to another.
- Mody, Ashoka, and Dilip Patro (1995). Methods of Loan Guarantee Valuation and Accounting, The World Bank, research paper, PDF. Provides an analytical methodology for valuation of loan guarantee.
- Ruster, Jeff (1996). Mitigating Commercial Risks in Project Finance, Viewpoint Note No. 69, The World Bank Group, Public Policy for the Private Sector, PDF.
- Public Policy Journal. Public Policy for the Private Sector is a journal on public policy innovations for private-sector led and market-based solutions for development. The journal is sponsored by the Rapid Response team and is open to submissions. Site users can search the contents of this site by keyword or by browsing titles by category.
- Relevant issues on transport are available here.
Private Infrastructure: Competition, Regulation and Market Structure (multisector). Available here.
- Private Infrastructure: Finance and Subsidies (multisector). Available here.
- Private Infrastructure: Water. Available here.
- Private Infrastructure: Energy (oil, gas, electricity). Available here.
Private Infrastructure: Telecommunications & Information Technology. Available here.
- Private Provision of Health and Education. Available here.
- Toolkits for policymakers and reform leaders. Available here. A number of sector-specific PPP toolkits designed for policymakers are available from this website. The toolkits provide overall methodological guidance, concrete examples and tools, and outlines of practical actions. Most of them contain references to additional materials, including articles or terms of reference that can be used for obtaining guidance on more specific points. The toolkits do not intend to provide definitive answers or recipes, but instead highlight options and discuss the pros and cons of each option depending on the circumstances of each country. Most of the toolkits are Web-based and interactive, and can also be used as a basis for training, either in self-training or tutored modes. The available toolkits are mentioned below.
- Concession: A Guide to their Design and Award. Available here. The Guide helps policymakers understand the granting of concessions, including their design, award, implementation, monitoring, and modification.
- Toolkit for Public-Private Partnership in Highways. Available here. The Toolkit highlights policy options for private participation in the highways sector (ranging from feeder roads to motorways).
- Framework for Port Reform. Available here. The toolkit analyzes the specific requirements of the port sector in great detail. Other sector specialists can also learn from such a flexible approach to introducing private sector participation, especially regarding issues such as risk allocation, design of competitive arrangements and consideration of labor issues. Common models are reviewed in depth.
- Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management. Available here. This toolkit aids local governments in deciding whether and how to involve the private sector in municipal waste services.
- Telecommunications Regulation Handbook. Available here. The Handbook provides regulators with a practical guide to regulating telecommunications, focusing on best practices in licensing, interconnection, pricing, and universal service obligations.
- Urban Bus Toolkit. This is an online toolkit available here. The Toolkit provides the fundamentals necessary for municipal officials and policymakers to begin the process of reform. This site offers guidance on evaluating urban bus systems, providing best practice benchmarks and an interactive tool to help diagnose and address problem areas.
- Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services. Available here. The toolkit assembles experience gained in introducing private participation in water and sanitation and lessons on what can make or break the process.
- Dutz, Mark, Clive Harris, Inderbir Dhingra, and Chris Shugart (2006). “Public-Private Partnership Units: What Are They, and What Do They Do?”, Public Policy Journal No. 311, the World Bank, PDF. As governments turn to the private sector to provide services once delivered by the public sector, they must learn new skills. An increasingly common way to provide the new capacities needed is to establish public-private partnership units—as new agencies or as special cells within a cross-sectoral ministry such as finance or planning. Making the right choices on what roles such units play, where they are located, and how conflicts of interest are managed is critical in their success. This Note reviews the experience.
- Guasch, J. Luis. 2004. “Granting and Renegotiating Infrastructure Concessions – Doing It Right.” World Bank Institute Development Studies. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, PDF. The book draws lessons in relation to the design and implementation of concession contracts. Based on examples from the Latin American countries the study shows the extent to which the concession award process, the contract design, the regulatory framework, and the overall governance structure tend to drive the success of any reform effort and the likelihood of contract renegotiation.
- Matsukawa, Tomoko and Odo Habeck (2007). Review of Risk Mitigation Instruments for Infrastructure Financing and Recent Trends and Developments, The World Bank and PPIAF, PDF. The paper reviews risk mitigation instruments (i.e. guarantees and insurance) used in the financing of public and private infrastructure projects in developing countries. The objective of the paper is to provide a concise yet comprehensive guide as well as reference information for practitioners of infrastructure financing, including government officials and private sector financiers. The paper summarizes the characteristics of major instruments and providers, discusses recent trends and development in meeting risk mitigation needs.
- Polackova, Hana (undated). Government Contingent Liabilities: A Hidden Risk to Fiscal Stability, World Bank, PDF. The author explains the contingent liabilities of PPP projects to government. The paper is a short version of a forthcoming, more comprehensive study that further elaborates the policy and institutional aspects of fiscal risks and includes several country case studies of direct and contingent fiscal risks and the quality of fiscal adjustment.
- Correa, Paulo, et al (2006). Regulatory governance in infrastructure industries - Assessment and measurement of Brazilian regulators, World Bank and PPIAF, available here. The report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of regulatory governance in infrastructure industries in Brazil and suggests possible indicators for future monitoring. It considers an analytical framework identifying key components of regulatory governance, namely, autonomy, procedures for decision making, “instruments” (including personnel), and accountability that may also be considered for other countries.
- Estache, Antonio and John Strong, The Rise, the Fall, and …the Emergency Recovery of Project Finance in Transport, World Bank Institute, PDF.
- World Bank (1998). Concessions for infrastructure – A guide to their design and award, Technical Paper No. 399, PDF. Concession arrangements entail a myriad of legal and economic issues. This report provides a guide to the complex range of issues and options involved in the implementation of concession arrangements, drawing on the experience of both industrial and developing countries.
- Ehrhardt, David and Timothy Irwin (2004). Avoiding Customer and Taxpayer Bailouts in Private Infrastructure Projects Policy toward Leverage, Risk Allocation, and Bankruptcy, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3274, PDF. The customers and taxpayers bear more risk than would appear from the regulations governing the private infrastructure project. This paper examines how these problems have played out in five cases. It also describes how governments and regulators can quantify the extent of the problems. Finally, it analyzes three options for mitigating the problem.
- Private Participation in Infrastructure database. The Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database has data on more than 3,800 projects in 150 low- and middle-income countries. The database is the leading source of PPI trends in the developing world, covering projects in the energy, telecommunications, transport, and water and sewerage sectors.
UNDP’S public-private partnerships for the urban environment (PPPUE)
- PPPUE is a facility that supports the development of innovative partnerships between public and private actors in providing basic urban environmental services to the poor in small and medium-sized cities. These services may include water and sanitation, sustainable energy services, solid waste management and central municipal services.
- Case studies. This section of the GLN seeks to ensure that new PPP initiatives can learn from the global experience within other sectors, forms of partnership, and geographical areas. Here you will find information on PPP projects which goes beyond that available in the Project Database. This section presents an increasing range of case studies which provide high quality analyses of the substantive and operational issues surrounding PPP initiatives from around the world.
- Bennett, Elizabeth, Peter Grohmann and Brad Gentry (1999). Public-Private Cooperation in the Delivery of Urban Infrastructure Services: Options and Issues, PPPUE Working Paper Series Volume I, (New York, UNDP and Yale University), available here. Reviews the fundamentals of PPP and presents short PPP case studies in water and sanitation from around the world.
- ESCAP website on PPPs
- UNESCAP (2007). Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Development: An introduction to issues from different perspectives, PDF. This document provides an overall picture of the PPP development process from different perspectives. It considers PPPs in terms of what they can offer and what the limitations are. Discussion is made on various aspects of PPP development including the major issues from the perspectives of institutional arrangements, operational arrangement, government involvement, financing, regulatory governance, contractual matters, and social concerns.
- UNESCAP (2005). PPP-Readiness Self-Assessment, available here. The aim of this PPP-Readiness Self-Assessment is to provide a diagnostic tool for identifying the key areas that governments need to address in order to involve the private sector more actively in the infrastructure development process. The key function of the Assessment is that it is to be used to diagnose problems in attracting private investment for infrastructure development as distinct from using it to develop benchmarks against which different sectors or countries could be compared.
- Public Private Partnerships- A Financier’s Perspective, PDF. The purpose of this primer is to provide the reader with a better understanding of the financier’s perspective of PPP structures. The report is broken up into five sections, each section representing a different segment in the development and assessment of PPPs considering financial issues.
- A Legal Perspective of Public-Private Partnerships at the National Level, PDF. The focus of this primer is on understanding legal and contractual issues arising from PPP transactions at a national level. At a national level, contractual agreements in PPP projects are critically important. First, whether an infrastructure project is "bankable" depends very much on the quality of the project agreements. Second, project agreements describe, or should describe, the rights and obligations of the parties. Whether or not the reader is involved with the "legal" or "contractual" aspects of a PPP transaction, these issues need to be considered and understood.
- Concession Agreement Workbook of Issues and Example Clauses, PDF. This workbook sets out the typical clauses in a concession agreement, together with issues and notes. These are organized in the usual order of the concession agreements, the content headings are set out in the first column. The key issues in the second column are adapted from the guidelines, A Legal Perspective of Public Private Partnerships.
- UNESCAP (2006). Enhancing Regional Cooperation in Infrastructure Development Including that Related to Disaster Management (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.06.II.F.13), p. 141, available here. Provides an estimation of investment needs in infrastructure sectors in the ESCAP region.
US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
- Website. This web site contains profiles of a large number of PPP projects in the transportation sector in the United States of America. The case study profiles use a standard template and are presented in a structured format and organized by PPP Option. As mentioned, the profiles were reviewed by their sponsoring agencies and are presented in a tabular format for their comparison. Case studies are available here.
- Besides case studies, the website also provides access to summaries and analyses of five PPP Agreements. A PPP agreement is the legal document that establishes the rights and obligations of government and the private-sector partners. The agreements describe the service to be provided, standards to be maintained, and the business and financial relationships between public agencies and their private sector partners. The analyses use a standard template that identifies a set of 36 key elements and legal issues that are associated with PPP agreements. They are available here.
- Alier, Max (2005). Public-Private Partnerships: Basic Considerations, Accounting and Reporting Issues, a PowerPoint presentation, ppt. The presentation highlights accounting and reporting issues in PPPs, particularly the fact that there is no general accounting and reporting standard. It also suggests interim approach to address the issue.
- Bain, Robert, and Jan Willem Plantagie (2007). The Anatomy of Construction Risk: Lessons From a Millennium of PPP Experience, Infrastructure Finance, Standard & Poor's Research Report, April 5, PDF. A major survey of construction risk by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services suggests that their successful delivery remains dependent on a number of critical prerequisites. The survey indicates that, absent these prerequisites, the construction-phase performance differential between PPPs and conventional procurement methods can narrow considerably.
- Cardone, Rachel and Caterina Fonseca (2003). Financing and Recovery, a thematic overview paper, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, PDF. The paper discusses issues related to cost recovery of water and sanitation projects. Based on data from water projects it shows how cost calculations can be made. It also discussed for costs recovery.
- Debande, Oliver (2002). “Private financing of transport infrastructure: an assessment of the UK experience”, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 355-387, available here. The paper provides an assessment of the United Kingdom’s experience in private financing of transport infrastructure.
- Engel, E., Fischer, R., and Galetovic, A. 2003. “Privatizing Highways in Latin America: Is It Possible to Fix What Went Wrong?” Yale University. Economic Growth Center, PDF.
- Fay, M. and T. Yepes (2003). Investing in infrastructure: what is needed from 2000 to 20l0?, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3102 (Washington, D.C., World Bank), PDF. Provides an estimate of future investment needs in the infrastructure sector. The estimates are the results of an econometric model.
- International Monetary Fund (2004). Public-Private Partnerships, Prepared by the Fiscal Affairs Department (In consultation with other departments, the World Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank), Approved by Teresa Ter-Minassian, PDF. Summarizes some of the important lessons learned from recent experiences. The report also highlights the issue that there is not yet a comprehensive fiscal accounting and reporting standard for PPPs.
- KPMG (2007). Public Private Participation in Indian Infrastructure, available here. The report is a background note to potential PPP investments in Indian infrastructure sectors.
- Kwak, Young Hoon (2002). “Analyzing Asian Infrastructure Development Privatization Market”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management/March/April, PDF. This research provides an overview and detailed analysis of the Asian concession market. Eighty-seven concession projects in 12 Asian countries were examined. Findings show that Asia has been implementing concession models actively in the power, transportation, and water sectors. Approximately 30% of the total concession projects had disappointing performances resulting in financial loss, cancellation, delay, and suspension of the project.
- PROFIT (2001). Public Private Partnerships; introduction, handbook, recommendations and conclusions, ST-98-SC.3035, Trans-European Networks, Rotterdam. Available at < The PROFIT manual thus provides first guidance in the overall process of PPP formulation and implementation.
- Rowland, David and Allyson Pollock (2002). Understanding the Private Finance Initiative: the school governor’s essential guide to PFI, Report for UNISON, School of Public Policy University College London, PDF. Explains the concept and discusses the pros and cons and justifications of PFI schemes for school projects. The report also provides an interesting critical analysis of some PFI projects and points out some dubious assumptions under which they were justified as PFI schemes.
- Savvides, S. (1994). “Risk Analysis in Investment Appraisal”, Project Appraisal Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, March, pp. 3-18, PDF. This paper presents a methodology and uses of the Monte Carlo simulation technique as applied in the evaluation of investment projects to analyse and assess risk. The first part of the paper highlights the importance of risk analysis in investment appraisal. The second part presents the various stages in the application of the risk analysis process. The third part examines the interpretation of the results generated by a risk analysis application including investment decision criteria and various measures of risk based on the expected value concept. The final part draws some conclusions regarding the usefulness and limitations of risk analysis in investment appraisal.
- Silva, G. F. 2000. “Toll Roads: Recent Trends in Private Participation.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank, PDF.
- Standard & Poor's (2002). Infrastructure Finance: Traffic Risk in Start-up Toll Facilities (September, by Robert Bain and Michael Watkins), PDF.
- Standard & Poor's (2003). Traffic Forecasting Risk: Study Update 2003 (by Robert Bain and Jan Willem Plantagie), PDF.
- Standard & Poor's (2004). Infrastructure Finance: Traffic Forecasting Risk: Study Update 2004 (by Robert Bain and Jan Willem Plantagie), PDF.
- UNCITRAL (2001). Legislative Guide on Privately Financed Infrastructure Projects, PDF. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has prepared a Legislative Guide on Privately Financed Infrastructure Projects. The Guide provides guidance on clauses related to dispute resolution that may be considered for inclusion in the contract document.
- UNECE (2007). A Guide to Promoting Good Governance in Public Private Partnerships, PDF. The purpose of this guide is to demonstrate how governments and the private sector can improve governance in PPPs, and thereby maximize the benefits and the contribution of PPPs to bridging the infrastructure gap and improving economic competitiveness. The Guide also contains number of interesting short case studies.
- Venkatachalam, Pritha (2005). Innovative approaches to municipal infrastructure financing: A case study on Tamil Nadu, India, Development Studies Institute Working Paper No. 05-68, London School of Economics, London, PDF. The Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund (TNUDF) is the first public-private financial intermediary in India providing long-term debt for infrastructure development on a non-guarantee mode. The case study examines how the Fund finances municipal infrastructure development projects in Tamil Nadu.
To suggest another PPP resource to be included on this Website, please contact us.