Workshop on Improving Disability Data for Policy
|Documentation for the Workshop /
Country Papers : Indonesia
Survey and Census Sources of National Disability Data
BPS - Statistics Indonesia
1. Overview of survey and census
a. It is rarely to conduct a particular survey or census collecting disability data in Indonesia. Social Economic Surveys (Susenas) 1998 and 2000, Population Census (Sensus Penduduk) 1980, Potensi Desa (Podes) 2002, and Pendaftaran Pemilih dan Pendataan Penduduk Berkelanjutan (P4B) 2003 collect this data through a bit questions.
Table-1 Sources of Disability Data in Indonesia
Susenas, Population Census, and Podes are parts of responsibilities of BPS according to Law No. 16, 1997 about Statistic, while P4B is a kind of census to provide voters data related to General Election 2004. In this census, BPS assists General Election Committee (KPU) in data collection and its processing.
b. The latest data collection was conducted at the year 2003 in Susenas 2003 (January) and P4B 2003 (April)
c. In every 10 years, BPS in line with Law No. 16 Year 1997- conducts Population Census (SP), but in term of SP1980 BPS collects disability data. Otherwise, Susenas collecting core and module data- collects disability data every 3 years in the culture and social module. Except P4B conducted in 2003, BPS just assists General Election Committee (KPU) in collecting voters data where one of the questions is about disability status.
d. Contact person for the survey and census
1. Dr. Sihar Lumban Tobing Director of Statistical Dissemination BPS
2. Bana Bodri Subdirectorate of Statistical Services BPS
2. Brief summary of survey and census
a. Disability data collected from survey and census comprise of blind, deaf, physical and psyche disability function, other disabilities, and causes of disabilities.
b. Disability data are made to provide users such as Department of Social, National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) or non-government organizations (NGO) that have concern on disability, and presented in a raw data or any publications.
c. Before survey or census, BPS involves users to discuss concepts and definitions according to collected disability data. The final concepts and definitions become guidance for enumerators in collecting data.
d. Disability is defined as a condition where someone has abnormalities in terms of their function, anatomy structure, physic and psyche. There are seven kinds of disabilities developed in surveys and census. Blind consists of total blind and low vision. Total blind means both eyes can not see at all, and low vision means both eyes unable to calculate hand fingers moving in one meter distant even using eyeglasses. Deaf means both ears without hearing aid- can not hear a voice or speech in one meter distant. Dumb means unable to speak at all or the speech could not be understood. Blind and Deaf (clear), Physical Disability means abnormality at bone, muscle, or moved joint. This category includes paralytic or incomplete parts of moving body. Unclearly speak because of chipped is also a part of this category. Mental Disturbance means trouble on skill (sitting, standing, walking, speaking, get dressing, and eat a meal) and usually is taken place since childhood. It includes a decrease of intellectual ability. This situation becomes a handicap in social and worked activities for old ages. In addition, the last is Psyche Disturbance that is described as an abnormality at mental and behavior. Some one who has this kind of disability is often speaking and laughing by her/his selves and their behavior is unpredictable.
e. Those disability classifications and definitions are according to national standards ones developed by Department of Social.
3. Scope of surveys and census
a. Disability surveys are covering all provinces in Indonesia through household sample approach, while census is covering all population without limited in a certain population characteristics, except in Population Census 1980 it was separated into children and adult categories.
4. Coverage and sampling
a. In general, the coverage of disability surveys is quite enough to figure the characteristics of disability persons in all regions but not to estimate number of disability person. It is because the surveys are not particularly designed to collect disability data. In census, the coverage reached almost all provinces except Aceh and Maluku that are facing conflicts in the last three years.
b. Sampling frame for the surveys is using Susenas sampling frame which is based on information of blok sensus (census block = the area consists of 100 households). Censuses (population, agriculture, and economy) collected the information in a process of listing. The sampling frame consists of administrative areas and number of households and population per census blocks. In surveys, the samples are 16 households per census block that would be expected able to estimate a characteristics or statistics at regency and municipality levels.
5. Other data sources as a bench mark
The only other source of disability data is from registrations conducted by Department of Social, non-government and other social organizations that concern about disability. However, it has a limited coverage. In addition, registration conducted by non-government and other social organizations is aimed to particular needs. The lack of method cause it can not be used as a benchmark of survey. However, the data resulted from P4B 2003 is expected to be a benchmark for the next surveys.
6. Response and non-response
a. In almost provinces, the response rate of surveys and census is nearly 100 percent, except in Aceh and Maluku (conflict provinces) is about 90 to 95 percent.
b. We evaluate non-responses in conflict areas Aceh and Maluku in term of their impacts. However, we can not repeat the survey or follow-up studies because the situation is not possible. In other provinces, natural factors, such as fires and flood cause non-responses. All these non-responses affect difficulties for government to implement a program because the lack of data.
7. Data Collection
a. The surveys apply face-to-face interview between enumerator and respondent. The enumerator comes to a household sample and interviewing a member of household based on the questionnaire.
b. Many case where disability persons are not directly facing the interviewer to answer the questions. In general, a housewife or another member in the household will reply the questions because the head of household (husband) usually is not at home at interview time.
c. Generally, we have three questions for disability data. (1). Is there a disability person in this household? (2). If Yes, what kind of disability? (3). Causes of disability. These questions are standardised pre-coded and put in the same block of household information in the questionnaire.
d. Formally, the interviews are using Bahasa Indonesia. However, we permit interviewers using mother language to ask respondents that can not speak in Bahasa Indonesia.
8. Measurement error
a. To reduce measurement error, surveys and census usually begin with processes such as questionnaire tests and training enumerators (to understand concepts and definitions). In addition, we also develop an organization separated into enumerators and editors to reduce the error, editing of data completeness and consistency, and doing Post Enumeration Survey (PES) in certain areas.
9. The strength and limitations surveys or census
10. Published sources on disability statistics
1. Survey Penyandang Kesos (PMKS) 1998, integrated in Susenas 1998
2. Penyandang Masalah Kesejahteraan Sosial 2000, integrated in Susenas 2000
Administrative Sources of National Disability Data
Note: This explanation focuses on Department of Socials experience in collecting disability data
1. Overview of administrative sources
a. The register is called Data Collection of Social Services and Rehabilitation for Disability on responsibility Department of Social in Directorate of Disability Services and Rehabilitation.
b. The aim of this data collection in line with a Law No. 4, 1997 about Disability and a Government Regulation No.43, 1998 about Efforts Toward Developing of Disability Persons Welfare
c. Factually, the register was conducted twice at the year 2002 and 2003. It means, in some years since the Law No. 4, 1997 and Government Regulation No.43, 1998, the register vacuum caused the reason of political situation in Indonesia.
2. Brief summary of register
a. The register collected (1). Number of disability person, (2). Kinds of disability, (3) Number of disability persons who receive social services and rehabilitation, (4). Disability person in labor force, (5). Education of disability person, (6). Causes of disability, (7). Problems faced by chronic diseases persons in their community or social houses, (8). Number of social houses conducting services and rehabilitation for disability person, (9). Existence and coordinating between Central Government, Local Government, and private Social Houses, (10). Other data, such as organization, structures, and social services and rehabilitation
b. Data collection is used to develop guidance for social services and rehabilitation that should be taken for persons with disabilities. The users are mostly departments especially Department of Social, non-government organizations and other social organizations that concern on disability.
c. Generally, Department of Social prepares the draft of registration form and discussed it with other linked department and social organizations. On the other hand, social organizations that will conduct a particular registration invite Department of Social as a leading sector in government- to discuss what and how information to collect.
d. Disability definition is quoted from Law No. 4, 1997 about Disability and Government Regulation No.43, 1998 about Efforts toward Developing of Disability Persons Welfare.
e. Disability definition is also the same with one used in disability surveys and census.
a. The coverage of register is all disability persons in social houses established by government and all that are ones carried out by social organizations.
b. The completeness of coverage depends on how well the management handles this register. Disability persons who are registered in social houses usually come from urban areas, while ones that are in rural areas missed out.
c. Regularly, there always reports of register from local to central government in order to evaluate. Since the Law No. 22, 2000 about Autonomy for Local Government run, the register reports gradually stop and continued by local government.
d. The register is using paper form prepared by Department of Social and is not frequently updated. Except the register carried out by non-government organizations and other social organizations is updated depend on the needs.
4. The strength and limitations of administrative register
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