1. The consultative meeting on environmental and resource accounting was held in ESCAP Bangkok, 3 and 4 October 1994 as an initial activity of the project entitled "Systems of Environmental and Resource Accounting". The project, which was funded by the Government of the Netherlands, was part of ESCAP efforts to assist the countries in developing the systems of environmental accounting; to help country experts with the comprehensive knowledge and understanding on the subject of -SNA satellite accounts- and the framework of the system of integrated environmental and economic accounts (SEEA); and to compile the figures of environmentally adjusted gross domestic product - green GDP. 2. The Statistics Division of ESCAP is responsible for the implementation of the project. The case study was planned to be undertaken in six developing countries namely: Guam, India, Iran, Pakistan, Philippines and Republic of Korea.
3. The consultative meeting was attended by four country-experts (those from Iran and Pakistan could not attend), and professional staff members from Statistics Division of ESCAP. The list of participants appears in annex I.
4. The group of experts was quite heterogeneous, in terms of professional background representing various governmental bodies and the research institutes. Hence, the discussion and consultations were very fruitful.
5. The consultative meeting covered the items, based on SNA 1993; Handbook on National Accounting, Series F. No. 61; Environmental Accounting: An Operational Perspective WP Series No. 1 DESIPA; and a short approach paper prepared by the consultant "Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting"; and other references including country papers and outlines case study on the SEEA. Each topic was presented by the consultant and country paper by respective country experts, and was followed by an open and intensive discussions.
6. The meting was opened by the Director of Statistics Division of ESCAP. In his remarks, he welcomed the country experts and explained and the background and objective of the project. He specifically stressed that eventually the practical guidelines to be developed by ESCAP, would draw significantly from the case study being undertaken by the participating countries.
7. At the end of the meeting, the Section Chief of Statistical Information Services Section, Statistics Division, explained other matters related to the project, and he also delivered the closing remarks. He congratulated the country experts on their active participation in the discussion, and expressed the hope to a successful implementation of the project in each respective country.
8. The discussions follows the consecutive order of chapters in the document prepared by the consultant "Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting", such a short approach paper containing the introduction to the understanding of the central framework of the SNA including the satellite system generated therefrom; the scope and coverage of environmental accounting; the SEEA versions. Discussion continued to the three main approaches to environmental accounting and the basic structure of the SEEA as the starting point to understand the general framework of environmental accounting, and ended by the elaboration of extended SNA framework. Some empirical evidence from the experience of a pilot study in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Mexico an Indonesia, has also been discussed.
9. Findings from the references were also put forward to the meeting for further discussion and to stimulate the broader analytical vision of the participants. The meeting discussed various methods and valuation principles and approaches to the estimation of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.
10. Country papers were discussed thoroughly with a view to finalize the action plan for the implementation of case study on the SEEA in respective country. Natural resources and environmental assets were identified for each country to assign priority for the inclusion of the resource in the estimation of EDP of the country.
11. Definition and terminology, classification and standardization were discussed and provisionally adopted for the operational guidance in the country case study. Improvement of the concept, definition and methodology were expected from the real working experience during the implementation of the project in respective country.
12. Using table 2.2 and 2.4 of the Handbook (Series F. No. 61) as a basis, further discussion were concentrated to trace the disaggregation and/or aggregation values of entry into the cells of various version of the SEEA matrices. The purpose was to prepare relevant worksheet for the estimating the valuation of resources before linking them to the SEEA. However, the time limitation constraint of the consultative meeting, only selected semi-micro worksheet were discussed by using pilot study result of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Mexico.
13. Chapter VI of the Handbook had also been given special attention in the consultative meeting to give some idea of priority concern and choice of approaches and methods to be adopted in the implementation of the SEEA. The logic of the discussion following the chart in figures VI of the chapter - Implementing the SEEA.
14. The consultative meeting made some observations which are as following:
15. The consultant to the project should further elaborate the short approach paper and prepare respective worksheet, relevant to each methods and approach, starting from the very beginning to the aggregation and consolidation process to arrive at the SEEA.
16. The consultant together with the staff of the Statistics Division of ESCAP visit the participating country for observation and supervision during the period of implementation of the case study and to review the progress.
17. The consultant will have to prepare a set of detailed technical guidelines to assist the countries of the region in developing their environmental accounts as well as other necessary technical documentations for the Expert Group Meeting and the Regional Seminar.
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
ESCAP PROJECT ON SYSTEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE ACCOUNTING
Recommendations for action by participating countries
1. GENERAL FRAMEWORK
Basic structure of the SEEA as discussed thoroughly in the 1993 SNA and its related handbook (Studies in Methods Series F, No. 61; and Working Paper Series No. 1 ST/ESA/1994/WP.1) will form the groundwork of conceptual as well as methodological aspects for the country case study. The participating countries will prepare set of environmental accounts for selected resource as well as compute the environmentally adjusted GDP and other associated parameters
2. DEFINITION AND TERMINOLOGY
Concept, definition and terminology related to the SEEA which is generally accepted for the use of case study are as follows:
A renewable natural resource is a natural resource which can be reproduced or recreated in a relatively short period either by nature or by technology.
On the other hand, a non-renewable resource is a kind of resource that needs a long period of time (more than 100 years) for their creation.
Classification of transactions, flows, stocks and other related SEEA matrices should be based on the Annexes A to E of the handbook (Series F, No. 61).
Standardization, conversion and other units of measurement for quantity, quality changes and other environmental impacts analysis will utilized the existing document available in WHO, FAO, ESCAP as well as own country source of information.
5. IDENTIFICATION OF RESOURCES FOR THE RESPECTIVE COUNTRY CASE STUDY
6. TIME REFERENCE OF DATA
The availability of data is one of the major problems of the study. However, the country case study to test the SEEA handbook from the operational perspective point of view, it is advisable to cover the information during the period of 1985-1992.
7. COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT
The draft case studies will be prepared by September 1995.
LIST OF DOCUMENT AND REFERENCE DISTRIBUTED
Recommendations for action by participating countries