Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2012
 
   
H. Connectivity
 
H.2. Transport

Efficient, reliable and safe transport infrastructure and services are crucial to regional integration and the sustainable and inclusive economic and social development of countries. Asia and the Pacific has continued to see improvements in transport infrastructure and services against the backdrop of substantial growth in output, trade and investment experienced by many countries in the region. On the other hand, the improvements have been quite uneven both across and within countries. Long-term commitment is required to address critical issues in the transport sector to support sustained economic growth, improve the living standards of the people and further increase the competitiveness of the economies of the region. At the same time, political commitment and effective interventions are required to improve road safety and energy efficiency of the transport sector.

Railway density in Asia and the Pacific has not seen great progress historically; however, increased government investment in railways continues to improve the overall availability and quality of rail services.

Railway density in the region remained at 6.5 km per 1,000 km2 in 2010. This is low compared with railway density in North America and in Europe. However, the increased investment in railways by Governments in the region reflects concern regarding the carbon footprint of the transport sector and the need to make greater use of the capabilities offered by intermodal transport.

Figure H.2-1
Railway freight in China, India and the Russian Federation, 2005 to 2011

Figure H.2-1 Railway freight in China, India and the Russian Federation, 2005 to 2011The largest volumes of both passengers and freight continued to be carried by the railways of China, India and the Russian Federation. Although rail freight has stagnated somewhat in the Russian Federation, significant increases were registered in India and in China at 42.3 per cent and 24.7 per cent, respectively, in the period 2006-2011.

Figure H.2-2
Railway passengers, top three countries in Asia and the Pacific and their respective subregions, 2000, 2005 and 2011

Figure H.2-2 Railway passengers, top three countries in Asia and the Pacific and their respective subregions, 2000, 2005 and 2011The flood in Thailand in late 2011 affected the Thai manufacturing sector, which in turn strongly affected rail freight transport, causing a 22.3 per cent reduction from 2010. In the region overall, railway freight in million ton-km has gradually increased from previous years.

The total demand for rail passenger transport services as measured in passenger-km increased by over 4.6 per cent from 2010 to 2011. Contributing to this increase were rises in rail passenger transport in China and in India. In China, the opening of new high-speed lines has attracted more customers to rail.

By 2010, container port traffic volume had already increased rapidly from the 2009 slump as the global economy began recovering from the financial crisis.

Figure H.2-3
Container port traffic, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010 or nearest year

Figure H.2-3 Container port traffic, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010 or nearest yearAt the global and regional levels, as well as in most subregions, container port traffic showed a steady increase in volume throughout the decade 2001-2010 except for a sudden slump in 2009, when the financial crisis slowed the global economy. Nevertheless, between 2009 and 2010, the Asian and Pacific region showed an increase of 16.5 per cent in container port traffic volume, which was higher than the world average of 14.1 per cent. By subregion, North and Central Asia showed the highest growth, at 33.8 per cent, in container port traffic volume, although its share in the region in absolute volume is minimal. East and North-East Asia had the highest share of total regional container port traffic (62.8 per cent). Its growth between 2009 and 2010 was almost 18 per cent, which was higher than the regional average.

Road density in Asia and the Pacific continues to increase, but remains low in comparison to more developed regions of the world.

From 2005 to 2008, the road density in Asia and the Pacific increased from 251 to 266 km of road per 1,000 km2 of land area, an increase of 5.4 per cent compared to a global growth of 3.5 per cent over the same period. However, the density remains low compared to Europe at 1,133 km per 1,000 km2 (2009), or North America at 436 km per 1,000 km2 (2009).

Figure H.2-4
Road density, Asia and the Pacific, 2005 and 2009 or nearest year

Figure H.2-4 Road density, Asia and the Pacific, 2005 and 2009 or nearest year The road network development has been particularly rapid in SAARC countries with the density nearly doubling to 1,000 km per 1,000 km2 between 1990 and 2008.

Note: Data for South-East Asia were available only for 2004 and hence not shown in the figure.

The general quality of roads in Asia and the Pacific has been improving.

In the region, paved roads as a percentage of total roads increased by 11.1 per cent between 2005 and 2008. North and Central Asia is the only subregion where paved roads as a percentage of total roads have been decreasing.

Figure H.2-5
Proportion of Asian Highway Network routes by class, 2004, 2006 and 2010

Figure H.2-5 Proportion of Asian Highway Network routes by class, 2004, 2006 and 2010 The Asian Highway Network continued to expand and now comprises approximately 143,000 km of roads across 32 member countries in Asia. As of the end of 2010, primary and class I Asian Highway Network routes covered about 30 per cent of the network, while class II and class III routes accounted for 62 per cent of the network. Between 2006 and 2010, countries in the region upgraded about 9,400 km (6.6 per cent) of the Asian Highway Network from their previous classification.1 The progress in upgrading routes of the network between 2004 and 2010 is shown in figure H.2-5.

Car ownership in most countries in the region has continued to increase, reaching 55.9 cars per 1,000 people in 2009.

In 2010, the car ownership rate for the region was much lower than the global average, but the ownership rate in its high-income economies (405 per 1,000 people) was similar to that of Europe (434 per 1,000 people), but lower than that of North America (606 per 1,000 people).

Figure H.2-6
Car ownership, world and world regions, 2005 and 2010 or latest year

Figure H.2-6 Car ownership, world and world regions, 2005 and 2010 or latest year Among countries in the region, car ownership in China increased almost three-fold, and, in Kazakhstan, it increased two-fold in just the five years between 2005 and 2010.

Road traffic death rates in many countries in Asia and the Pacific are among the highest in the world, with more than half of the world’s total road traffic deaths occurring in the region.

About 777,000 people were killed on the region’s roads in 2010, accounting for 63 per cent of total global road traffic deaths. While the number of global fatalities in 2010 remained similar to that in 2007, road fatalities in the region continued to increase. However, this trend has been reversed in the Pacific and in North and Central Asia, where the number of road traffic deaths has decreased. On the other hand, the situation in East and North-East Asia and in South-East Asia was worse in 2010 in comparison with 2007.

Figure H.2-7
Countries in Asia and the Pacific with the highest road traffic deaths, 2010

Figure H.2-7 Countries in Asia and the Pacific with the highest road traffic deaths, 2010Overall, there were 18.6 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in the region in 2010, which was slightly higher than the world average of 18.1. With the exception of the Pacific (8.1), road traffic deaths per 100,000 population ranged between 17 and 20 in all the subregions.

Vulnerable road users include drivers and passengers of motorized two- or three-wheeled vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians. According to data from the World Health Organization, of the total road traffic deaths in the region in 2010, 55 per cent were vulnerable road users.2

Table. Road traffic deaths in the world, Asia and the Pacific and its subregions, 2007 and 2010

 
2007
2010
(Per 100,000 population)
ENEA
15.3
19.0
SEA
17.9
19.7
SSWA
18.3
18.4
NCA
22.3
17.6
Pacific
9.2
8.1
Asia-Pacific
17.2
18.6
World
18.5
18.1

Source: ESCAP, calculations based on data from the World Health Organization. Available from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main. A998?lang=en.

Figure H.2-8
Road traffic deaths, Asian and Pacific subregions, total number, 2010

Figure H.2-8 Road traffic deaths, Asian and Pacific subregions, total number, 2010

Figure H.2-9
Road traffic deaths in Asia and the Pacific by type of user, 2010

Figure H.2-9 Road traffic deaths in Asia and the Pacific by type of user, 2010

 

Source: ESCAP, calculations based on data from the World Health Organization. Available from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/ node.main.A998?lang=en.

The region’s share of energy consumption in the transport sector is growing steadily. In 2010, the road sector accounted for more than 80 per cent of total energy consumption in the transport sector in the region.

In 2000, the transport sector consumed 1,956 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) energy globally, of which 23.5 per cent (459 Mtoe) was consumed in the Asian and Pacific region. In 2010, the transport sector in the region consumed 27.4 per cent (648 Mtoe) of the sector’s total global energy consumption (2,362 Mtoe). The road sector accounted for most of the energy consumption both in the region and in the world. Compared with the global increase, energy consumption by road transport in the region is escalating more steeply.

Figure H.2-10
Energy consumption in the transport sector, Asia and the Pacific and the world, 2000-2010

Figure H.2-10 Energy consumption in the transport sector, Asia and the Pacific and the world, 2000-2010

Figure H.2-10 Energy consumption in the transport sector, Asia and the Pacific and the world, 2000-2010

In line with increasing energy consumption, the region shows an upward trend in CO2 emissions from the transport sector. In 2010, emissions from the road sector accounted for about 83.3 per cent of total CO2 emissions from the transport sector in the region.

Figure H.2-11
Carbon dioxide emissions, Asian and Pacific subregions, 1990-2010

Figure H.2-11 Carbon dioxide emissions, Asian and Pacific subregions, 1990-2010In the region, carbon dioxide, or CO2, emissions soared from 1,056 million tons in 1990 to 1,844 million tons in 2010. In 2010, East and North- East Asia accounted for almost 45 per cent of the region’s total CO2 emissions from transport, the highest among the subregions. In terms of increases in emissions, South-East Asia has had the highest growth rate, which almost doubled between 1990 and 2010. North and Central Asia, on the other hand, had a slight decline in total emissions during the same period.

Figure H.2-12
Carbon dioxide emissions by type of transport, Asia and the Pacific and the world, 2010

Figure H.2-12 Carbon dioxide emissions by type of transport, Asia and the Pacific, 2010 Figure H.2-12 Carbon dioxide emissions by type of transport, world, 2010

Further reading

ESCAP. Efficient Cross-border Transport Models. 2012. Available from www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/ECBTM/ECBTM-fulltext.pdf.

________. Review of Developments in Transport in Asia and the Pacific 2011. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.12.II.F.8. Available from www.unescap.org/ttdw/review/files/review2011.pdf.

Technical notes

Railway freight (million ton-km)
Represents transport in million tons of goods by rail over a distance of 1 km. The distance to be covered is the distance actually run on the specified network, normally the national network of the reporting country. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Railway passengers (million passenger-km)
Represents transport of passengers by rail over a distance of 1 km. The distance to be taken into consideration should be the distance actually travelled by the passenger on the specified network. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Port container traffic (million twenty-foot equivalent units)
The flow of containers from land-to-sea transport modes, and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units, a standard-sized container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Trans-shipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to offload and again as an outbound lift). Empty units are included. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Port container traffic (per million dollars of GDP)
Per million dollars of GDP figures are based on GDP in current United States dollars.

Railway density (km of railway per 1,000 km2 land area)
The length of rail lines divided by the land area expressed in 1,000 km. Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service measured in km, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using land area as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Road density (km of road per 1,000 km2 land area)
Total road network includes motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and all other roads measured in km in a country. Total road network divided by the land area. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using land area as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Paved roads (percentage of roads)
The share of roads surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, concrete or cobblestones, expressed as a percentage of the length of all roads. Total paved roads divided by the total road network. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using road network as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Asian Highway Network: primary, class I, class II, class III, below class III and total (km)
The Asian Highway Network consists of highway routes of international importance within Asia, including highway routes substantially crossing more than one subregion, highway routes within subregions that connect neighbouring subregions, and highway routes located within member States that provide access to (a) capital cities, (b) main industrial and agricultural centres, (c) major air, sea and river ports, (d) major container terminals and depots, and (e) major tourist attractions. The total Asian Highway Network is divided into five major classes (primary, class I, class II, class III, below class III) that conform with road design standards. Primary refers to access-controlled asphalt or cement concrete dual carriageway highways with four or more lanes. Accesscontrolled highways are used exclusively by automobiles. Access to the access-controlled highways is at grade-separated interchanges only. Mopeds, bicycles and pedestrians should not be allowed to enter the access-controlled highway in order to ensure traffic safety and the high running speed of automobiles. Class I refers to asphalt or cement concrete dual carriageway highways with four or more lanes. Class II refers to asphalt or cement concrete highways with two lanes. Class III refers to double bituminous surface treatment highways with two lanes. Class III is also regarded as the minimum desirable standard. Roads classified below class III are road sections below the minimum desirable standard. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Passenger cars (per 1,000 population)
Road motor vehicles designed for the conveyance of passengers and seating not more than nine persons, including the driver. Taxis, jeep-type vehicles and station wagons are included. Specialpurpose vehicles, such as two- or three-wheeled cycles or motorcycles, trams, trolley buses, ambulances, hearses and military vehicles operated by police or other governmental security organizations, are excluded. Per 1,000 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2012). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population (WPP2012) as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Road traffic deaths (number)
Number of deaths caused by traffic accidents during a given period. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values.

Road traffic deaths (per 100,000 population)
Per 100,000 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2012). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population (WPP2012) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Energy consumption: aviation, road, rail and total (thousand tons of oil equivalent)
All transport activity (in mobile engines) regardless of the economic sector to which it is contributing (International Standard Industrial Classification Divisions 60 to 62), divided into subsectors of international and domestic aviation, road, rail and total. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

CO2 emissions: aviation, road, rail and total (million tons of CO2)
Represents the values of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion by the transport sector. Emissions are expressed in million tons of CO2 and calculated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) using International Energy Agency (IEA) energy databases and the default methods and emissions factors from the Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. International and domestic aviation includes emissions from aviation fuels delivered to aircraft for international aviation bunker and domestic aviation: commercial, private and agricultural, among others. It includes use for purposes other than flying, such as bench testing of engines, but not airline use of fuel for road transport. Regarding roads, it covers the emissions arising from fuel use in road vehicles, including the use of agricultural vehicles on highways. Regarding rail transport, it covers emissions from rail traffic, including industrial railways. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Sources

Sources of railway, road, passenger car and port container data: WDI. Railway data are from the International Union of Railways (available from www.uic.org/). Road and passenger car data are from the International Road Federation World Road Statistics (available from www.irfnet.org/statistics.php) and data files. Data obtained: 2 July 2013 for railways, 7 August 2012 for roads and port containers, 10 January 2013 for passenger cars.

Source of Asian Highway Network data: ESCAP, Transport Division. Data obtained: 28 February 2012.

Source of road traffic death data: World Health Organization, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013. Online data from Global Health Observatory Data Repository. “Mortality: Road traffic deaths by country” (available from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A997?lang=en). Data obtained: 13 June 2013.

 
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