Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2012
 
   
F. Environment
 
F.2. Energy supply and use

Energy products and services are essential for mining, agriculture, manufacturing, transport and all other forms of economic activity including by households and small businesses. Disruptions in the availability or price of energy can have serious consequences for development. A lack of access to affordable sources of energy can be a critical barrier to inclusive and sustainable development.

In terms of global energy supply, 2011 and 2012 were eventful years. The developments in Northern Africa and in the Middle East spurred concerns about political stability and market speculation, increasing the volatility of energy markets. The earthquake and tsunami in Japan also had immediate implications, both in Japan and around the world, for nuclear power and other sources of energy.

Despite crises and disruptions, the Asian and Pacific region continued to be a major contributor to growth in global energy supply and use. Relatively low levels of per capita energy consumption in many parts of the region indicate a likelihood for further increases in energy supply and use in the future.

Energy consumption in Asia and the Pacific has been rising continuously during the last decade. One of the contributing factors is the shift of energy intensive manufacturing from industrialized countries to Asia. The region’s share of global primary energy supply1 rose from 38 per cent to 47 per cent during 2000-2010. Almost 55 per cent of the region’s energy supply in 2010 was attributed to East and North-East Asia alone. This subregion witnessed consistent growth in high-energy demand at an average of 5.8 per cent per annum between 2000 and 2010 (see figures F.2-1 and F.2-2).

Figure F.2-1
Total primary energy supply, Asia and the Pacific and other world regions, 2000 and 2010

Figure F.2-1 Total primary energy supply, Asia and the Pacific and other world regions, 2000 and 2010Accounting for roughly half of the world’s production of primary energy, the Asian and Pacific region is endowed with large stocks of energy resources to help meet the growing demand. However, these energy resources are spread unevenly. For example, East and North- East Asia accounted for the highest share in production with 2,430 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010, whereas the Pacific had a very small share and only 327 MTOE. In 2011, the Russian Federation was the region’s largest gas and oil producer, accounting for 20.0 per cent and 12.7 per cent of the global totals, respectively. China was the source of almost half of the world’s production of coal in 2011, followed by the United States of America at 12.9 per cent and India at 7.5 per cent.2

While global electricity production increased by an average of 3.6 per cent annually between 2001 and 2010, the figure for Asia and the Pacific was 6.3 per cent. Led by China, Japan, the Russian Federation and India, the region accounted for 45 per cent of the global electricity production in 2010. East and North-East Asia generated more than 60 per cent (5,857 terawatt-hours, or TWh) of the electricity produced in the region, followed by South and South-West Asia (1,555 TWh) and North and Central Asia (1,252 TWh).

Figure F.2-2
Total primary energy supply, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010

Figure F.2-2 Total primary energy supply, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010In 2010, renewable energy (including large hydro) accounted for about 12 per cent of the total primary energy supply (TPES) in the region; this was much less than in Africa, where the proportion was 40 per cent, and less than in Latin America and the Caribbean, with 26 per cent. Within the region, South-East Asia and South and South-West Asia led this indicator with 27 per cent and 22 per cent of their respective energy supply stemming from renewable sources. For electricity from renewable energy sources, the Asian and Pacific region led the world generating 1,522 TWh of its electricity from renewable energy sources in 2010. But this amounted to only 15.8 per cent of the region’s total electricity, which is below the world average of 19.4 per cent.

Figure F.2-3
Total primary energy supply per capita, world, Asia and the Pacific, and its subregions, 2000 and 2010

Figure F.2-3 Total primary energy supply per capita, world, Asia and the Pacific, and its subregions, 2000 and 2010Factors such as population size and patterns of economic production and consumption must also be taken into consideration when reviewing energy supply and use patterns.

With about 60 per cent of the world’s total population, or 4 billion people, Asia and the Pacific has the third lowest per capita TPES (1,438 kg of oil equivalent, or koe) in the world after Africa (737 koe) and Latin America and the Caribbean (1,331 koe). There are also disparities within the region in per capita energy supplies. The Pacific subregion, which includes Australia and New Zealand,3 accounts for less than 1 per cent of the region’s population and has the highest per capita energy supply at 5,339 koe, second only to North America. At the other end of the spectrum, South and South-West Asia, which is home to nearly half the region’s population, has the lowest per capita energy supply at 662 koe. A rising trend in per capita energy supply can be found in East and North- East Asia over the past two decades (see figure F.2-3), particularly in China.

The need for regional trade in energy products is determined by growing energy demand, especially in rapidly developing countries in the Asian and Pacific region, and the uneven geographical distribution of energy resources.

The balance between energy imports and exports in the region is fairly stable over time. However, there are wide variations between two subregions in particular: North and Central Asia is the largest energy exporter, and East and North-East Asia is the largest energy importer (see figure F.2-4), which demonstrates the uneven distribution of energy and thus a dependency on international trade.

Figure F.2-4
Net energy imports, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010

Figure F.2-4 Net energy imports, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010Options for trade in oil, gas and electricity, though currently limited by infrastructure and other constraints, are increasingly being investigated. At the subregional level in particular, electricity is viewed as a promising export item with potential benefits in the forms of revenue generation and socio-economic development. South-East Asia is leading large-scale efforts to promote energy trade with the establishment of the Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline project and the implementation of the ASEAN Power Grid.

The Asian and Pacific region still has much to gain from improving energy efficiency.

The energy intensity of an economy is used as an indicator of economic competitiveness and can be calculated by dividing primary energy supply by GDP. It is important to note, however, that energy intensity is influenced by various factors, including population, climate, the structure and connectedness of the economy, and the infrastructure for energy production and consumption.

Figure F.2-5
Energy intensity, Asia and the Pacific and other world regions, 2000-2010

Figure F.2-5 Energy intensity, Asia and the Pacific and other world regions, 2000-2010As shown in figure F.2-5, the energy intensity of the region is quite high, 66 per cent greater than Europe, which has the lowest energy intensity among all regions. This could be due to the relatively high share (36 per cent) of end-use energy consumption in the industrial sector in Asia and the Pacific compared with that in other regions of the world. High industrial end-use could signify a higher level of activities such as mining, manufacturing or the production of goods, or relatively poor industrial energy efficiency, or a combination of both.

Figure F.2-6
Energy intensity, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010

Figure F.2-6 Energy intensity, Asian and Pacific subregions, 2000-2010Within Asia and the Pacific, North and Central Asia continues to be the most energy-intensive subregion, at 353 koe per unit of GDP in 2010. While ageing equipment and outdated technology contribute to significant inefficiencies in the energy sector, the subregion has made considerable progress over the past two decades by implementing measures to improve energy efficiency (see figure F.2-6), although energy intensity for the subregion has begun to increase again (by 3.5 per cent) in 2009 and 2010.

Box F.2-1
Access to modern energy services and human development

Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, the Asian and Pacific region continues to have a large number of people living without access to modern energy services. With less than 400 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per capita, annual household electricity consumption in Asia and the Pacific is the second lowest among the world’s regions, after Africa (200 kWh per capita).

Electrification rates, Asia and the Pacific, rural and urban areas, 2010

Electrification rates, Asia and the Pacific, rural and urban areas, 2010Globally, nearly 1.3 billion people remain without access to electricity. Two thirds of those people live in just 10 countries, 4 of which are in the Asian and Pacific region: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Pakistan.a

Rural areas have lower electrification rates as many such areas are remote and hence inaccessible for grid extension (see following figure). It is estimated that over 60 per cent of all future capacity-addition efforts will be focused on mini-grids and off-grid connections. In this context, the role of renewable energy, by nature apt for such solutions, is vital.b

The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.45 million people die prematurely each year from indoor air pollution caused by burning solid fuels (biomass) with insufficient ventilation.a This makes the number of premature deaths from indoor air pollution greater than the number of premature deaths from malaria or tuberculosis.

Globally, 2.6 billion people, and 1.8 billion people in the region, use solid fuels (biomass) for cooking, which is a proxy indicator used by WHO for indoor air pollution. Three Asian countries, Bangladesh, China and India, account for more than half of this number. The two succeeding chartsc show a significant difference between the types of energy used for cooking in urban areas and rural areas, which show that while urban households have access to relatively safe cooking technologies, their rural counterparts in the region are more likely to be exposed to higher health hazards.

Source: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/ International Energy Agency, Paris, 2012). Available from www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/globalstatus ofmodernenergyaccess/#d.en.8609.
Cooking fuels used by rural populations in Asia and the Pacific, 2010
Source: World Health Organization, WHO Household Energy Database. Available from www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/he_databasecont/en/index.html.
Cooking fuels used by urban populations in Asia and the Pacific, 2010
Cooking fuels used by urban populations in Asia and the Pacific, 2010
Source: World Health Organization, WHO Household Energy Database. Available from www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/he_databasecont/en/index.html.
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a International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency, Paris, 2012). Available from www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/ globalstatusofmodernenergyaccess/#d.en.8609.
b DB Climate Change Advisors, Deutsche Bank Group, “GET FiT Plus: de-risking clean energy business models in a developing country context” (April 2011). Available from http://europa.eu/epc/pdf/workshop/background_get_fit_plus_final_040711_en.pdf.
c World Health Organization, WHO Household Energy Database. Available from www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/he_databasecont/en/index.html.
 

Box F.2-2
Sustainable energy for all

The year 2012 was significant in terms of global action in the area of energy.

At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), Member States recognized the critical role that energy plays in the development process, emphasizing that access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs.a

In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly declared 2014-2024 the Decade of Sustainable Energy for All,b recognizing that “…access to modern affordable energy services in developing countries is essential for the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, and sustainable development, which would help to reduce poverty and to improve the conditions and standard of living for the majority of the world’s population.” The Secretary-General launched the initiative “Sustainable Energy for All” to mobilize action from all sectors of society in support of three interlinked objectives to be achieved by 2030:

  • To provide universal access to modern energy services
  • To double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • To double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
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a See General Assembly resolution 66/288, annex, para. 125.
b See General Assembly resolution 67/215.

Further reading

BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. 2013. Available from www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/statistical-review/statistical_review_of_world_energy_2013.pdf.

ESCAP. Growing Together: Economic Integration for an Inclusive and Sustainable Asia-Pacific Century. Bangkok, 2012. Available from www.unescap.org/pdd/publications/themestudy2012/ themestudy2012-full.pdf.

International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2012. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency, 2012. Available from www.world energyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2012/.

Technical notes
Glossary

Total primary energy supply (TPES): Composed of production + imports – exports – international marine bunkers – international aviation bunkers  stock changes. TPES includes fuels such as coal and gas that are subsequently transformed into other energy forms, such as electricity. For the world total, international marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are not subtracted from TPES.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy is derived from natural processes (such as sunlight and wind) that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed. Renewables include the primary energy equivalent of hydro (excluding pumped storage), geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave. They also include energy derived from solid biomass, biogasoline, biodiesel, other liquid biofuels, biogas, industrial waste and municipal waste.

Indicators

TPES (MTOE, koe per capita, percentage change per capita per annum, koe per 1,000 dollars GDP in 2005 PPP, percentage change per 1,000 GDP per annum)
TPES per GDP is often referred to as the overall “energy intensity” of an economy. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2012). Per GDP figures are based on GDP in 2005 PPP (WDI). Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (MTOE); weighted averages using total population (WPP2012) or GDP in 2005 PPP dollars as weight (koe per capita, koe per 1,000 dollars GDP in 2005 PPP); average annual growth of aggregate values (percentage change per capita per annum, percentage change per 1,000 GDP per annum). Note that, for the world total, international marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are not subtracted from TPES. Missing data are not imputed.

Total final energy consumption (MTOE)
The sum of consumption by the different enduse sectors. Backflows from the petrochemical industry are not included in final consumption. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Final energy consumption by sector: industry, transport and residential use (percentage of total final energy consumption)
Industry: Specified under the following subsectors according to International Standard Industrial Classification, or ISIC (except energy used for transport by industry, which is reported under transport): iron and steel industry (ISIC Group 241 and Class 2431); chemical and petrochemical industry (ISIC Divisions 20 and 21), excluding petrochemical feedstocks; nonferrous metals basic industries (ISIC Group 242 and Class 2432); non-metallic minerals such as glass, ceramic and cement (ISIC Division 23); transport equipment (ISIC Divisions 29 and 30); machinery, comprising fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment other than transport equipment (ISIC Divisions 25 to 28); mining (excluding fuels) and quarrying (ISIC Divisions 07 and 08 and Group 099); food and tobacco (ISIC Divisions 10 to 12); paper, pulp and printing (ISIC Divisions 17 and 18); wood and wood products, other than pulp and paper (ISIC Division 16); construction (ISIC Divisions 41 to 43); textile and leather (ISIC Divisions 13 to 15); non-specified – any manufacturing industry not included above (ISIC Divisions 22, 31 and 32). Transport: Encompasses all fuels used for transport (ISIC Divisions 49 to 51), including transport in industry and covering domestic aviation, road, rail, pipeline transport, domestic navigation and non-specified transport. Fuel used in ocean, coastal and inland fishing (included under fishing) and military consumption (included in other non-specified) are excluded from transport. International marine and international aviation bunkers are also included here for world total. Residential: Includes consumption by households and excludes fuels used for transport. Includes households with employed persons (ISIC Rev. 4 Divisions 97 and 98), a small part of total residential consumption. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values of the sector divided by the sum of individual country values of total final consumption. Missing data are not imputed.

TPES balance: total, production, imports and exports (MTOE)
Total: TPES, as defined above. Production plus imports minus exports are the main elements of the TPES balance. Production: Production of primary energy, that is: hard coal; lignite; peat; crude oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; combustible renewables and waste; nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar power; and the heat from heat pumps that is extracted from the ambient environment. Production is calculated after removal of impurities (for example, sulphur from natural gas). Imports and exports: Comprises amounts of energy, including fuels and electricity, that have crossed the national territorial boundaries of a country coming in or going out, whether or not customs clearance has taken place. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Gross electricity production (million kWh, percentage change per annum) [TWh=million kWh/1,000]
Measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station; it therefore includes the energy taken by station auxiliaries and losses in transformers that are considered integral parts of the station. Production at hydro stations includes production from pumped storage plants, without deduction of electric energy absorbed by pumping. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (TWh); average annual growth of aggregate values (percentage change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Household electricity consumption (kWh per capita, percentage change per annum)
Annual electricity consumption by households. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2012). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population (WPP2012) as weight (kWh per capita); average annual growth of aggregate values (percentage change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Access to electricity (percentage of population)
Percentage of the population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population (WPP2012) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Population without electricity (millions)
Number of the population without electricity. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Renewable energy production, total (MTOE, percentage of TPES)
Renewable energy includes the primary energy equivalent of hydro (excluding pumped storage), geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave. It also includes solid biomass, biogasoline, biodiesel, other liquid biofuels, biogas and municipal waste. Indicator calculations: The proportion of renewable energy production to TPES expressed as a percentage. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (MTOE); sum of individual country values of total renewable energy divided by the sum of individual country values of TPES (percentage of TPES). Missing values are not imputed.

Electricity generated from renewable energy sources (terawatt-hours or TWh, percentage of total energy sources)
The total number of TWh generated from all renewable energy sources. Indicator calculations: The proportion of electricity generated (TWh) from all renewable energy sources to the electricity generated (TWh) from all energy sources expressed as a percentage. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (TWh); sum of individual country values of electricity generated from renewables divided by the sum of individual country values of electricity generated from the total energy sources (percentage of total energy sources). Missing values are not imputed.

Sources

Source of energy supply data use except access to electricity and population without electricity: International Energy Agency (IEA). Countries report to IEA through the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member site and the non-OECD government site. The IEA secretariat does not adjust the data. For final consumption, energy balance, primary energy supply and electricity data, IEA notes that energy statistics at the national level are often collected using criteria and definitions that differ, sometimes considerably, from those of international organizations. The IEA secretariat has identified such differences and, where possible, adjusted the data to meet international definitions. Data obtained: 25 January 2013.

Source of access to electricity and population without electricity data: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2012. Data obtained: 9 June 2013.

Source of renewable energy data: IEA, “World: renewable and waste energy supply (Ktoe)”, IEA Renewables Information Statistics Database (2012). Data obtained: 23 April 2013.

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1 Primary energy includes hard coal; lignite; peat; crude oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; combustible renewables; nuclear, hydro, geothermal and solar power; and heat pumps.
2 International Energy Agency, Key World Energy Statistics 2012 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency, Paris, 2012).
3 For the Pacific subregion, figures are available for only Australia and New Zealand.
 
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