Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011
 
Technical notes - IV. ConnectivityPDF format

Information and communications technology

Fixed telephone mainlines (per 100 population; % change per annum)

Fixed telephone lines refer to telephone lines active during the preceding three months, that connect a subscriber’s terminal equipment to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and that have a dedicated port on a telephone exchange. They include the active number of analogue fixed-telephone lines (112a), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) channels (28c), fixed wireless (WLL), public payphones (1112) and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) subscriptions (112IP). Indicator calculations: Per 100 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 population; % change per annum, % of total subscribers)

Subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provides PSTN access to cellular technology, including pre-paid subscriber identity module (SIM) active during the preceding three months. It includes both analogue and digital cellular systems IMT-2000 (third generation [3G]) and fourth generation [4G]) subscriptions and all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications, but excludes mobile broadband subscriptions via data cards or Universal Serial Bus (USB) modems. Subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint or radio paging, and telemetry services are also excluded. Indicator calculations: Per 100 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Internet users (per 100 population; % change per annum)

Internet users: The estimated number of Internet users of the total population, including those using the Internet from any device (e.g., mobile phones) during the preceding 12 months. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed. Fixed broadband Internet subscribers: The number of subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to or greater than 256 kbit/s. That includes, for example, cable modem, DSL, fibre-tothe- home/building and other fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions. It excludes subscriptions to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile cellular networks. Indicator calculations: Per 100 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed for future years. Missing data are assumed to be zero for previous years.

ICT data: International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database. ITU collects individual country values from an annual questionnaire sent to government telecommunications/ICT agencies and provides estimates of data on countries and years that are missing from the survey. Data obtained on: 11 January 2011.

Transport

Railway freight (million ton-km)

Represents the transport in million tons of goods by rail over a distance of 1 kilometre. The distance to be covered is the distance actually run on the specified network, normally the national network of the reporting country. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Railway passengers (million passenger-km)

Represents the transport of rail passengers by rail over a distance of 1 kilometre. The distance to be taken into consideration should be the distance actually travelled by the passenger on the specified network. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Port container traffic (million TEU)

The flow of containers from land-to-sea transport modes., and vice versa, in 20-foot-equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Trans-shipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to offload and again as an outbound lift). Empty units are included. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Railway density (km of railway per 1,000 km2 land area)

The length of rail lines divided by the land area expressed in 1,000 kilometres. Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service measured in kilometres, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks. Total road network divided by the land area. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using land area as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Road density (km of road per 1,000 km2 land area)

Total road network includes motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and all other roads measured in kilometres in a country. Total road network divided by the land area. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using land area as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Paved roads (% of roads)

The share of roads surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, concrete or cobblestones, expressed as a percentage of the length of all roads. Total paved roads divided by the total road network. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using land area as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Asian highway, primary, class I to III, below class III and total (km)

The Asian Highway network consists of highway routes of international importance within Asia, including highway routes substantially crossing more than one subregion; highway routes within subregions that connected neighbouring subregions; and highway routes located within member States that provide access to: (a) capital cities; (b) main industrial and agricultural centres; (c) major air, sea and river ports; (d) major container terminals and depots; and (e) major tourist attractions. The total Asian Highway network is divided into five major classes (primary, I, II, III, below III) that conform with road design standards. Primary class refers to access-controlled highways. Access-controlled highways are used exclusively by automobiles. Access to the accesscontrolled highways is at grade-separated interchanges only. Mopeds, bicycles and pedestrians should not be allowed to enter the access-controlled highway in order to ensure traffic safety and the high running speed of automobiles. Class I refers to asphalt, cement or concrete roads with four or more lanes. Class III refers to double bituminous treated roads with two lanes. Class III is also regarded as the minimum desirable standard. Roads classified below class III are road sections below the minimum desirable standard. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Passenger cars (per 1,000 population)

Road motor vehicles designed for the conveyance of passengers and seating not more than nine persons, including the driver. Taxies, jeep-type vehicles and station wagons are included. Special-purpose vehicles, such as two- or three-wheeled cycles or motorcycles, trams, trolley-buses, ambulances, hearses and military vehicles operated by police or other governmental security organizations, are excluded. Indicator calculations: Per 1,000 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are imputed.

Road traffic deaths (number; per 100,000 population)

Deaths caused by traffic accidents during a given period. Indicator calculations: Per 100,000 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Energy consumption, aviation, road, rail and total (thousand tons of oil equivalent)

All transport activity (in mobile engines) regardless of the economic sector to which it is contributing (ISIC Divisions 60, 61 and 62), divided into subsectors of international and domestic aviation; roads; rails; and total. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

CO2 emission, aviation, road, rail and total (million tons of CO2)

Represents the values of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion by the transport sector. Emissions are expressed in million tons of CO2 and calculated by OECD using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emissions factors from the Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). International and domestic aviation includes emissions from aviation fuels delivered to aircraft for international aviation bunker and domestic aviation: commercial, private and agricultural, among others. It includes use for purposes other than flying; e.g., bench testing of engines, but not airline use of fuel for road transport. Regarding roads, it covers the emissions arising from fuel use in road vehicles, including the use of agricultural vehicles on highways. Regarding rail transport, it covers emission from rail traffic, including industrial railways. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of railway, road (including passenger car) and container data: WDI. Railway data come from the International Union of Railways (www.uic.org/). Road and passenger car data come from the International Road Federation, World Road Statistics (accessible at www.irfnet.org/statistics.php) and data files. Data obtained: 07-10 January 2011.

Source of road traffic death data: WHO, Global Status Report on Road Safety: Time for Action (Geneva, 2009; available from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ publications/2009/9789241563840_eng.pdf). The report is the first broad assessment of road safety in 178 countries, using data drawn from a standardized survey. Data obtained on: 13 October 2009.

Source of Asian Highway data: United Nations ESCAP, Transport Division. Data obtained on: 10 November 2009.

Source of energy consumption data: IEA. From OECD online library. Countries report to IEA through the OECD member site and non-OECD government site. Country-level energy statistics are often collected using criteria and definitions that differ, sometimes considerably, from those of international organizations. The IEA secretariat has identified such differences and, where possible, adjusted the data to meet international definitions. Data obtained on: 20 January 2011.

Source of CO2 emission data: IEA. Countries report to IEA through the OECD member site and non-OECD government site. The IEA secretariat does not adjust the data. Data obtained on: 24 January 2011.

Tourism1

Inbound tourism – arrivals/outbound tourism – departures (thousands)

Arrivals: Includes the following considerations. (1) Data refer exclusively to tourists (overnight visitors): visitors who stay at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited; same-day visitors are not included. (2) Data refer to the number of arrivals and not to the number of persons. The same person who makes several trips to a given country during a given period will be counted as a new arrival each time, and a person who travels through several countries on one trip is counted as a new arrival each time. Departures: Include people who depart from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. Aggregate calculations: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (Arrivals).

Inbound/outbound tourism expenditure (million US dollars; % of GDP)

Inbound: The receipts earned by a destination country from inbound tourism resulting from expenditure made by visitors from abroad, on lodging, food and drinks, fuel, transport in the country, entertainment, shopping and associated activities. Outbound: The expenditure incurred by people travelling from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited: on lodging, food and drinks, fuel, transport in the country, entertainment, shopping and associated activities. Indicator calculations: Percentages of GDP figures are based on GDP in current United States dollars. Aggregate calculations: UNWTO. Percentage of GDP is based on million United States dollar values from UNWTO divided by GDP in current United States dollars.

Source of tourism data: UNWTO. Data come from country sources or IMF. Figures on volumes of international tourism are collected from countries and relate to the concept of international tourist arrivals at frontiers. However, as not all countries collect data according to that concept, another series may be used instead: data on receipts and expenditure related to international tourism, which are generally gathered in the framework of the balance of payments under the items “Services, Travel, Credit and Debit” (international tourism receipts and expenditure) and “Transportation, Passenger Services, Credit and Debit” (international fare receipts and expenditure). Data obtained on: 03 February 2011.


1 Aggregates values are calculated by UNWTO using specific country groupings that differ from the groupings used throughout the Statistical Yearbook, as follows:
  • East and North-East Asia: excluding DPR Korea, including Taiwan Province of China
  • South and South-West Asia: excluding Turkey
  • Pacific: Excluding Nauru
  • Asia and the Pacific: Excluding DPR Korea, Nauru, Turkey and all countries from the North and Central Asia region; including Taiwan Province of China.

For the definition of other world regions, please refer to UNWTO publications such as UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (http://mkt.unwto.org/ en/barometer).

 
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