Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011
 
Technical notes - II. Environment PDF format

Air pollution and climate change

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (million tons; % change per annum, tons per capita; grams per 1,000 GDP in 2005 PPP dollars)

Total CO2 using the Tier 1 Sectoral Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Per 1,000 GDP in 2005 PPP dollars are based on WDI figures. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (million tons). Average annual growth of aggregate million ton values (% change per annum). Weighted averages of per capita and per 1,000 GDP figures, using population and GDP in 2005 PPP dollars as weight, respectively. Missing data are not imputed.

Consumption of ozone-depleting substances (grams per capita; grams per 1,000 GDP in 2005 PPP dollars)

Annual consumption in weighted tons of the individual substances in the group of ozone-depleting substances multiplied by their ozone-depleting potential (ODP). Ozone-depleting substances are those containing chlorine or bromine that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Per 1,000 GDP figures are based WDI figures. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages of per capita and per 1,000 GDP figures, using population and GDP in 2005 PPP dollars as weight, respectively. Missing data are not imputed.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (thousand tons; kg per capita)

N2O emmissions is estimated using a model from the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands (RIVM) by the following EDGAR divisions: energy, agriculture, waste and others. “Others” include industrial process emissions, nitrous oxide usage and tropical and temperate forest fires. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (thousand tons); weighted averages using total population as weight (kilograms per capita). Missing data are not imputed.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions (thousand tons)

SO estimated using an RIVM model by the following EDGAR subdivisions: fuel combustion, biofuel combustion, fugitive , industry, solvent use, agriculture, waste and others. “Others” comprise tropical and temperate forest fires. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

PM10 concentration in urban areas (micrograms per m3)

Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates of less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that can penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract and cause significant health damage. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. A country’s state of technology and pollution control is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using urban population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) emissions (kg per day)

BOD emissions are the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria in breaking down waste. BOD is a measure of all industrial organic water pollutants.

Retail fuel prices, diesel and super gasoline (US cents per litre)

Pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel and super gasoline fuel in a given country. Prices have been converted from the local currency to US dollars.

Source of carbon dioxide data: International Energy Agency (IEA). Countries report to IEA through the OECD member site and non-OECD government site. The IEA secretariat does not adjust the data. Data obtained on: 24 January 2011.

Source of ozone data: MDG Indicators database. Countries that are Party to the Montreal protocol report data annually to the Secretariat using data reporting formats agreed by the Parties. Data are usually reported by the ministry of environment or by designated authorities such as an environmental protection agency or an environmental management authority or a national ozone unit. Country data are not adjusted. Data obtained on: 22 July 2010.

Source of N2O and SO2: United Nations Environment Programme, Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR). Emissions in EDGAR are calculated using country-specific information. Countries report their data directly to UNEP. Data obtained on: 27 September 2010.

Source of PM10 and BOD data: WDI. The estimates come from Kiren Dev Pandey and others, “Ambient particulate matter concentrations in residential and pollution hotspot areas of world cities: New estimates based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)”, World Bank Development Economics Research Group and Environment Department Working Paper (Washington, D.C.; 2006). Data are provided by countries. Data obtained on: 10 March 2011.

Source of fuel price data: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ, formerly GTZ), GTZ International Fuel Prices 6th Edition. International Fuel Prices 2005, 2007 and 2008. (available from www.gtz.de/en/themen/29957. htm). Data obtained on: 23 May 2011.

Water availability and use

Renewable water; total (billion m3 per annum; m3 per capita per annum) and internal (billion m3 per annum)

Total renewable: The sum of internal renewable water resources and natural incoming flow originating outside the country, taking into consideration the quantity of flows reserved to upstream and downstream countries through formal or informal agreements or treaties. That sum gives the maximum theoretical amount of water available in the country. Internal renewable: Long-term annual average flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (billion m3 per annum); and weighted averages using total population as weight (m3 per capita per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Domestic water withdrawal (m3 per capita per annum)

Drinking water plus water withdrawn for homes, municipalities, commercial establishments, and public services. Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Total freshwater withdrawal (% of total renewable water per annum)

The gross amount of water extracted, either permanently or temporarily, from surface water or groundwater sources minus that produced from nonconventional water sources, such as reused treated wastewater and desalinated water. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total renewable water as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Total water withdrawal (billion m3 per annum)

The gross quantity of water withdrawn which includes water withdrawn for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. Other categories of water use, such as cooling of power plants, mining, recreation, navigation or fisheries, are not included. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Water withdrawal, agriculture, domestic, industry (% of total water withdrawal)

Agriculture: Agricultural water withdrawal (quantity of water used for agricultural purposes, including irrigation and for livestock. Methods for computing agricultural water withdrawal vary from country to country) divided by the total water withdrawal. Domestic use: The total water withdrawn by the public distribution network divided by the total water withdrawal. It can include that part of the industries, which are connected to the network. Industry: Quantity of water used for industrial purposes divided by the total water withdrawal. Usually, this sector refers to self-supplied industries not connected to any distribution network. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values of the sector divided by sum of individual country values of total water withdrawal. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of water availability and use data: AQUASTAT, Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Information system on Water and Agriculture. Data obtained on: 10 January 2011.

Energy supply and use

Energy supply and consumption defined

Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) is composed of production + imports – exports – international marine bunkers – international aviation bunkers _ stock changes. TPES includes fuels such as coal and gas that are subsequently transformed into other energy forms, such as electricity. For the world total, international marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are not subtracted from TPES. Total Final Consumption (TFC) is the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors. Backflows from the petrochemical industry are not included in final consumption.

Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) (kg of oil equivalent per capita; % change per capita per annum; kg of oil equivalent per 1,000 GDP in 2005 PPP dollars; % change per 1,000 GDP per annum)

TPES follows the above definition. TPES per GDP is often referred to as the overall “energy intensity” of an economy. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Per GDP figures are based on GDP in 2005 PPP (WDI). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population and GDP in 2005 PPP dollars as weight for kilograms per capita and kilograms per 1,000 GDP, respectively. Average annual growth of aggregate values (% change per annum). Note that for the world total, international marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are not subtracted from TPES. Missing data are not imputed.

Total final energy consumption (TFC) (million tons of oil equivalent)

TFC follows the above definition. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Final energy consumption; industry, transport, residential use (% of total final energy consumption)

Industry: Specified under the following subsectors according to ISIC; energy used for transport by industry is reported under transport: iron and steel industry (ISIC Group 241 and Class 2431); chemical and petrochemical industry (ISIC Divisions 20 and 21), excluding petrochemical feedstocks; non-ferrous metals basic industries (ISIC Group 242 and Class 2432); non-metallic minerals such as glass, ceramic and cement (ISIC Division 23); transport equipment (ISIC Divisions 29 and 30); machinery, comprising fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment other than transport equipment (ISIC Divisions 25 to 28); mining (excluding fuels) and quarrying (ISIC Divisions 07 and 08 and Group 099); food and tobacco (ISIC Divisions 10 to 12); paper, pulp and printing (ISIC Divisions 17 and 18); wood and wood products, other than pulp and paper (ISIC Division 16); construction (ISIC Divisions 41 to 43); textile and leather (ISIC Divisions 13 to 15); non-specified – any manufacturing industry not included above (ISIC Divisions 22, 31 and 32). Transport: Encompasses all fuels used for transport (ISIC Divisions 49 to 51), including transport in industry and covering domestic aviation, road, rail, pipeline transport, domestic navigation and non-specified transport. Fuel used in ocean, coastal and inland fishing (included under fishing) and military consumption (included in other non-specified) are excluded from transport. International marine and international aviation bunkers are also included here for world total. Residential: Includes consumption by households and excludes fuels used for transport. It includes households with employed persons (ISIC Rev. 4 Division 97 and 98), a small part of total residential consumption. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values of the sector divided by the sum of individual country values of total final consumption. Missing data are not imputed.

TPES balance; total, production, imports, exports (million tons of oil equivalent)

Total: The total primary energy supply (TPES) as defined above. Production plus imports minus exports are the main elements of the TPES balance. Production: Production of primary energy; i.e., hard coal, lignite, peat, crude oil, NGL, natural gas, combustible renewables and waste, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar and the heat from heat pumps that is extracted from the ambient environment. Production is calculated after removal of impurities (e.g., sulphur from natural gas). Imports and exports: Comprise amounts of energy, including fuels and electricity, that have crossed the national territorial boundaries of a country, whether or not customs clearance has taken place. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Gross electricity production (million kWh; % change per annum)

Measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station; it therefore includes the energy taken by station auxiliaries and losses in transformers that are considered integral parts of the station. Production at hydro stations includes production from pumped storage plants, without deduction of electric energy absorbed by pumping. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (million kWh). Average annual growth of aggregate values (% change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Household electricity consumption (kWh per capita; % change per annum)

Annual electricity consumption by households. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using total population as weight (kWh per capita). Average annual growth of aggregate values (% change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Source of energy supply and use: IEA. Countries report to IEA through the OECD member site and the non-OECD government site. The IEA secretariat does not adjust the data. For final consumption, energy balance, primary energy supply and electricity data, IEA notes that energy statistics at the national level are often collected using criteria and definitions that differ, sometimes considerably, from those of international organizations. The IEA secretariat has identified such differences and, where possible, adjusted the data to meet international definitions. Data obtained on: 20 January 2011.

Biodiversity, protected areas and forests

Marine areas protected (km2; % of territorial water)

The overall surface of protected marine areas as adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). All areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain are covered, together with their overlying water and associated flora, fauna and historical and cultural features, that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part of or the entire enclosed environment. Only protected areas that are nationally designated are included in this indicator. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (km2); and weighted averages using total territorial water area as weight (% of territorial water). Missing data are imputed.

Terrestrial areas protected (km2; % of surface area)

The total land area dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. Only protected areas that are nationally designated are included in this indicator. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (km2); and weighted averages using surface area as weight (% of surface area) Missing data are imputed.

Forest area (km2; % change per annum; % of land area)

The two criteria for a forest area are: (1) an area that spans more than half a hectare, with trees higher than five metres; and (2) a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach that threshold in situ. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (km2); and weighted averages using total land area as weight (% of land area). Average annual growth of aggregate values (% change per annum).

Primary forest (km2; % of total forest area; % change per annum)

Forest/other wooded land of native species, where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. Includes areas where collection of non-wood forest products occurs, provided that the human impact is small. Some trees may have been removed. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (km2). Weighted averages using forest area as weight (% of total forest area). Average annual growth of aggregate values (% change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Naturally regenerated/planted forest (km2)

Naturally regenerated: Other naturally regenerated forest where signs of human activity are clearly visible and where the trees are predominantly of introduced species. Planted: Planted forest covers forest predominantly composed of trees established through planting and/or deliberate seeding; and forest where the planted/seeded trees are predominantly of introduced species. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Threatened species (total by taxonomic group) (number of species)

The number of threatened species listed by IUCN as critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable. The IUCN classification uses quantitative criteria, based on population size, rate of decline and area of distribution, to assign species to the above categories. Listing in a higher extinction risk category implies a higher expectation of extinction; and, over the specified time frames, more species listed in a higher category are expected to become extinct than those in a lower one (without effective conservation action). Data are presented for each country by taxonomic group: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, molluscs, other invertebrates, and plants.

Source of marine and terrestrial areas protected: MDG Indicators Database. The data source is the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), the most comprehensive global dataset on marine and terrestrial protected areas available. WDPA is a joint product of UNEP and IUCN, prepared by UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas working with governments, the secretariats of Multilateral Environmental Agreements and collaborating non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Data are reported by countries to WDPA. Quality control criteria are applied to ensure consistency and comparability of WDPA data. New data are validated at UNEP-WCMC through a number of tools and translated into the standard WDPA data structure. Discrepancies between WDPA data and new data are resolved in communication with data providers. Processed data is fully integrated into the published WDPA. Data obtained on: 20 July 2010.

Source of forest data: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment. Data are provided by countries to FAO in response to a common questionnaire. Data obtained on: 07 January 2011.

Source of threatened species data: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, version 2010.4: table 5. The numbers of species listed in each category in the Red List change each time it is updated. Factors that determine such changes include species being assessed and added to the Red List for the first time, and species being reassessed and moving into a different category of threat. Summaries of the numbers of species in each Red List category by taxonomic group and by country are provided here for the current IUCN Red List. Figures represent species only and do not include subspecies, varieties or geographically isolated subpopulations or stocks. Data obtained on: 24 February 2011.

Natural disasters

Natural disaster event

A disruptive natural event that overwhelms local capacities to restore order, necessitating – according to the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) definition – a request to national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering. Though often caused by nature, disasters also have human origins. Wars and civil disturbances that destroy homelands and displace people are included among causes of disasters. Other causes are structural collapse, blizzards, drought, epidemics, earthquakes, explosions, fire, flood, hazardous material or transportation incidents (such as a chemical spill), hurricanes, nuclear incidents, tornados, or volcanoes.

Types and hazards of natural disasters

Earthquake: Shaking and displacement of ground due to seismic waves; i.e., the earthquake itself without secondary effects. Earthquakes are the result of sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. They can be of tectonic or volcanic origin. At the Earth’s surface they are felt as a shaking or displacement of the ground. The energy released in the hypocenter can be measured in different frequency ranges. Different scales are thus used in measuring the magnitude of a quake according to a certain frequency range. They are: (a) surface wave magnitude (Ms); (b) body wave magnitude (Mb); (c) local magnitude (ML); and (d) moment magnitude.

Storm: Any disturbed state of the atmosphere of an astronomical body, especially one that affects its surface and strongly implies severe weather. It may be marked by strong wind, thunder and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation such as ice (an ice storm) or wind that carries some substance through the atmosphere (as in a dust storm, snowstorm or hailstorm).

Flood: Significant rise of water level in a stream, lake, reservoir or coastal region.

Drought: Triggered by lack of precipitation, an extended period characterized by deficiency in water supply that is the result of constantly below-average precipitation. A drought can lead to agricultural losses, affect inland navigation and hydropower plants, and cause a lack of drinking water and famine. Wildfire: A fire burning uncontrolled, usually in wild lands, that can cause damage to forestry, agriculture, infrastructure and buildings.

Volcano: All volcanic activity such as rock fall, ash fall, lava streams and gases. Volcanic activity includes both the transport of magma and/or gases to the Earth’s surface, which can be accompanied by tremors and eruptions, and the interaction of magma and water (e.g., groundwater, crater lakes) underneath the Earth’s surface, which can result in phreatic eruptions. Depending on the composition of the magma, eruptions can be explosive and effusive and result in variations of rock fall, ash fall, lava streams, pyroclastic flows or emission of gases.

Natural disaster mortality (number per annum; per million population)

The number of recorded deaths from natural disasters. Indicator calculations: Per million population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Average of individual country values (number per annum) and sum of deaths divided by sum of population (per million population). Missing data are not imputed.

People affected by natural disasters (thousands per annum; per 1,000 population)

Affected people are those requiring immediate assistance during an emergency including food, water, shelter, sanitation and immediate medical assistance. The definition includes cases of infectious disease introduced in a region or a population that is normally free from that disease. Indicator calculations: Per 1,000 population figures are based on population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Average of individual country values (thousands per annum) and sum of affected peope divided by some of population (per 1,000 population). Missing data are not imputed.

Economic damage from natural disasters (million 2005 US dollars per annum; % of GDP)

Economic consequences of a disaster, usually direct (e.g., damage to infrastructure, crops and housing) and indirect (e.g., loss of revenues, unemployment and market destabilization). In each case, the registered figure represents the value of damage at the moment of the event; i.e., the figures are true for the year of the event. Indicator calculations: Data are converted from millions of United States dollars to 2005 US dollars millions using Implicit Price deflators (NAMAD). The proportion of GDP is based on million United States dollar values from EM-DAT divided by GDP in current United States dollars. Aggregate calculations: Average of individual country values (million 2005 US dollars per annum); sum of the economic damage in million US dollars divided by the sum of GDP in million US dollars (% of GDP). Missing data are not imputed.

Source of natural disaster data: EM-DAT: Emergency Events Database. The database is based on various sources, including UN agencies, nongovernmental organizations, insurance companies, research institutes and press agencies. Data obtained on: 14 February 2011.

 
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