Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2011
 
Technical notes - I. PeoplePDF format
Demographic trends

Population

Population (thousands; % change per annum)

De facto mid-year population, covering all residents, regardless of legal status or citizenship, except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (thousands); weighted averages using population as weight (% change per annum). Missing data are not imputed.

Crude birth/death rate (per 1,000 population)

Birth: The number of births during a given period divided by the total number of person-years lived by the population during that period (person-years for a calendar year is approximated as the mid-year population). Death: The number of deaths occurring during a period divided by the person-years for that period. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Fertility rate (live births per woman)

The average number of live births per woman. This represents the number of live births a woman will have by the end of her reproductive period assuming the current prevailing age-specific fertility rates continue throughout her childbearing life. Indicator calculations: Number of births divided by the number of women. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using women aged 15-49 as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Adolescent fertility rate (live births per 1,000 women aged 15-19)

The average number of births a 15-19 year old woman will experience. Indicator calculations: The number of live births to women aged 15-19 divided by the number of women in the same age group. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using women aged 15-19 as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Population/Child sex ratio (males/boys per 100 females/girls)

Population: The ratio of the number of males to females expressed per 100. Child: The ratio of boys aged 0-14 years to girls aged 0-14 years, expressed per 100. Indicator calculations: Male/boy population divided by the female/girl population. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values for the male/boy population divided by the sum of individual country values of the female/girl population. Missing data are not imputed.

Life expectancy at birth, females/males (years)

The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of age-specific mortality rates at the time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child’s life. Missing data are not imputed.

Child/elderly population (% of population)

Children: Children aged 0-14. Elderly: People aged 65 or older. Indicator calculations: The percentage of the child/elderly population in the total population. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values for the children/elderly population divided by sum of the individual country values of the population. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of population data: WPP2010. Estimated demographic trends are projections based on censuses, administrative data and surveys provided by countries through an annual questionnaire. Population data from all sources are evaluated by the UN for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Data obtained: 03-07 May 2011.

Urbanization

Urban defined

There is no common definition in the region of what is “urban”. Definitions of urban areas may be based on administrative criteria, population size and/or density, economic functions or availability of certain infrastructure and services or other criteria. Because many countries define “urban” according to administrative criteria, urbanization levels and urban population growth rates may be underreported. Additionally, most growth occurs in the urban periphery, which may be beyond the boundary of “urban” and therefore may not be reflected in official statistics. Cross-country comparability of statistics related to urbanization is therefore limited.

Urban population (% of population; % change per annum)

Population living in areas classified as urban according to the administrative criteria used by each country or area. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population (% of population) and urban population (% change per annum) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Urban slum population (% of urban population)

Urban slum households, reported as a share of the urban population. A slum household is a group of individuals living under the same roof who lack one or more (in some cities, two or more) of the following: security of tenure, structural quality and durability of dwelling, access to safe water, access to sanitation facilities, and sufficient living area. Urban slum households are located within an area classified as urban according to administrative criteria used by each country or area. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using urban population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Population density (population per km2)

Number of people per km2 of surface area. Total surface area comprises total land, inland and tidal water areas. Indicator calculations: Population divided by surface area (from FAO, AQUASTAT database, on 07 January 2011). Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values of population divided by the sum of individual country surface areas. Missing data are not imputed.

Population living in urban agglomerations (thousands)

An agglomeration is defined as a city or town proper, together with the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the city boundaries. Data are presented for agglomerations of 750,000 or more inhabitants. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of population and urbanization rate data: WPP2010. Estimated demographic trends are projections based on censuses, administrative data and surveys provided by countries through an annual questionnaire. Population data from all sources are evaluated by the United Nations for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Data obtained on: 03 May 2011.

Source of slum population data: United Nations MDG Indicators Database. Data obtained on: 20 January 2011.

Source of population of urban agglomerations data: World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision (database accessible at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/ index.htm). Wherever possible, data are classified according to the concept of urban agglomeration, using the metropolitan area or city proper. The United Nations makes some adjustments in conformance with the urban agglomeration concept. Data obtained on: 11 February 2011.

International migration

Foreign population (thousands, % of population)

The estimated number of international immigrants, male and female, in the middle of the indicated year; generally represents the number of persons born in a country other than where they live. When data on the place of birth are unavailable, the number of non-citizens is used as a proxy for the number of international immigrants. The foreign population includes refugees, some of whom may not be foreign-born. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values (thousands) and as weighted averages using population as weight (% of total population). Missing data are not imputed.

Net migration rate (per 1,000 population)

International immigrants minus emigrants divided by the average population of the receiving country over a period. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of foreign population data: United Nations, Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2008 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/ Stock/Rev.2008). Most estimates are based on data from population censuses held during the decennial rounds of censuses. Population census data are supplemented with data from population registers and nationally representative surveys. Data obtained on: 25 August 2009.

Source of migration rate data: WPP2010. Estimated demographic trends are projections based on censuses, administrative data and surveys provided by countries through an annual questionnaire. Population data from all sources are evaluated by the UN for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Data obtained on: 03 May 2011.

Health

Child health

Live birth defined

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, which, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life – such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles – whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Each product of such a birth is considered a live birth.

Infant/under-five mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births)

The infant/under-five mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of 1 (infant mortality) or 5 (under-five mortality). These calculations are, strictly speaking, not rates (i.e., the number of deaths divided by the number of population at risk during a certain period of time) but a probability of death derived from a life table and expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births. A life table is a statistical representation of the probability of a person surviving for each additional year of life; i.e., the probability of surviving one more year, then based on survival of one additional year, the probability of an additional one year. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods; weighted averages using live births (from WPP2010) as weight.

Infant/under-five mortality (thousand deaths)

The number of infant/under-five deaths is only estimated for economic, regional and subregional groupings. Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as the number of infants/children under 5 for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the infant/under-five mortality rate.

Children under 5 underweight (% of children under 5; thousands)

The percentage of children aged 0-59 months whose weight for age is less than two standard deviations below the median weight for age of the international reference population. The international reference population, often referred to as the NCHS/WHO reference population, was formulated by the National Center for Health Statistics as a reference for the United States and later adopted by WHO. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods; weighted averages using children 0-59 months (WPP2010) as weight. Data in thousands are estimated from the total number of children under 5 for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the aggregate percentage of underweight children.

Children under 1 immunized against measles; total, poorest and richest quintiles (% of children under 1)

Children under 1 year of age who have received at least one dose of a measles vaccine. Note that it is generally recommended for children to be immunized against measles at the age of 9 months. Poorest and richest quintiles of the population are based on income data. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods (poorest and richest quintile are not aggregated); weighted averages using children aged 1 year (WPP2010) as weight.

Children under 1 not immunized against measles (thousands)

Children under 1 year of age who have not received at least one dose of a measles vaccine (only estimated for economic, regional and subregional groupings). Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as the number of children under 1 for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the percentage of children not immunized against the measles (1 minus the percentage of children immunized against measles).

DPT3 immunization rate for 1-year olds (% of 1-year olds)

The percentage of 1-year olds who have received three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine in a given year. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using children aged 1 year (WPP2010) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of child health data (except underweight children): WHO Global Health Observatory (WHO/ GHO) Database, World Health Statistics. Data are collected from countries by WHO/UNICEF. Infant and under-5 mortality: Based on country-level data from vital registration systems, national censuses, household surveys conducted by global programmes, and multipurpose surveys conducted without international sponsorship. To search national data sources that might be overlooked, UNICEF conducts an annual exercise called the Country Reports on Indicators for the Goals (CRING). UNICEF uses country-level microdata in estimating rate. Measles data: Data are collected from countries through the ministry of health with the WHO/ UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. Three types of data are collected: administrative, survey and official national estimates. DPT3: Data have been reported to WHO/UNICEF by national authorities. Missing country values are estimated using linear interpolation (for middle gaps) and carrying the previous year’s data forward (for end gaps). Data obtained on: 20 June 2011.

Source of data on underweight children: MDG Indicators Database. UNICEF is the primary data custodian. Country-level data are generally obtained from national household surveys, including demographic and health surveys, multiple indicator cluster surveys and national nutrition surveys. Data obtained on: 12 January 2011.

Maternal and reproductive health

Maternal mortality (deaths per 100,000 live births, deaths)

Maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days after termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and location (domestic or abroad) of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management; but not from accidental or incidental causes. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods, sum of individual country values (deaths) and weighted averages using the number of live births (WPP2010) as weight (per 100,000 live births).

Births attended by skilled health personnel; total, poorest and richest quintiles, rural and urban (% of live births)

Births attended by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses or midwives) are deliveries attended by personnel trained in providing life-saving obstetric care, including giving the necessary supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy, labour and the post-partum period; conducting deliveries on their own; and caring for newborns. Traditional birth attendants, even if they have received a short training course, are not included. Poorest and richest quintiles of the population are based on income data. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods (poorest and richest quintile; and rural and urban disaggregation are not aggregated); weighted averages using the number of live births (WPP2010) as weight.

Births not attended by skilled health personnel (thousands)

Births not attended by skilled health personnel is only calculated for economic, regional and subregional groupings. Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as the number of births for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the percentage of births not attended by skilled health personnel (1 minus the percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel).

Contraceptive prevalence rate, 15-49 year old females (% of 15-49 year old females)

The contraceptive prevalence rate is the proportion of women currently using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception among women of reproductive age (usually aged 15-49). In some countries the denominator is married women only, as (reported) sexual activity outside of marriage is considered rare.

Antenatal care coverage; at least four visits, at least one visit (% of women with a live birth)

At least four visits: Women aged 15-49 with a live birth in a given time period who received antenatal care four or more times with any provider (whether skilled or unskilled). At least one visit: Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in a given time period who received antenatal care provided by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses, or midwives) at least once during pregnancy. A skilled health worker/attendant is an accredited health professional – such as a midwife, doctor or nurse – who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal (uncomplicated) pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate post-natal period, and in the identification, management and referral of complications in women and newborns. Both trained and untrained traditional birth attendants are excluded. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods; weighted averages using the number of live births (WPP2010) as weight.

Women lacking antenatal care coverage, at least one visit (thousands)

Women lacking antenatal care coverage is only calculated for economic, regional and subregional groupings. Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as the number of women with live births for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the percentage of women lacking antental care (1 minus the percentage of women with antenatal care coverage).

Source of maternal mortality and antenatal care data: MDG Indicators Database. Based on data from WHO, UNDP, UNICEF and the World Bank. Sources and methods used to determine maternal mortality vary by country. Primary sources of data include vital registration systems, household surveys (direct and indirect methods), reproductive-age mortality studies, disease surveillance or sample registration systems, special studies on maternal mortality, and national population censuses. Despite being based on established demographic techniques and empirical data from other countries, the country-specific point estimates obtained through the statistical model do not necessarily represent the true levels of maternal mortality. Data obtained on: 07 July 2011.

Source of other maternal health data: WHO/GHO. Microdata are from nationally representative surveys including the demographic and health surveys, the fertility and family surveys, reproductive health surveys with assistance from the Centers for Disease Control in the United States, the multiple-indicator cluster surveys and national family planning, or health, or household, or socio-economic surveys. Survey data from sources other than the national statistical system are included when other data are not available. The data are taken from published survey reports or, in exceptional cases, other published analytic reports. UNICEF/WHO base their estimates on the available data sources and internal verification procedures. Data obtained from 20 to 24 June 2011.

HIV and AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) defined

HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system, ultimately leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV destroys the body’s ability to fight off infection and disease, which can ultimately lead to death.

Population living with HIV; total, adults, and female adults (number)

Estimated number of people living with HIV. Estimates include all those infected with HIV, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS. Adults is defined as 15 and above and children as 0-14. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

HIV prevalence rate, 15-49 year olds (% of 15-49 year olds)

Individuals aged 15-49 living with HIV. HIV prevalence includes all those infected with HIV, whether or not symptoms of AIDS have developed. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population aged 15-49 (WPP2010) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

HIV prevalence rate in the capital city for mostat-risk groups (% of most-at-risk group)

The data are based on the capital city of each country. Most-at-risk groups include: female sex workers, injecting drug users, and men who have sex with men. HIV prevalence includes all those infected with HIV whether or not symptoms of AIDS have developed. Percentages are based on the percent of each at-risk group that has HIV.

Comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS, 15-24 year old females/males (% of 15-24 year old females/males)

Women and men aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS. “Comprehensive correct knowledge” is defined as correctly identifying the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission and knowing that a healthylooking person can transmit HIV.

Condom use at last high-risk sex, 15-24 year old females/males (% of 15-24 year old females/ males)

The percent of respondents among 14-24-year olds who say they used a condom the last time they had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner, of those who have had sex with such a partner in the last 12 months.

Condom use in most-at-risk groups (% of most-at-risk group)

Female sex workers: Female sex workers who report having used a condom with their most recent client, of sex workers who report having sex with any client in the last 12 months. Injecting drug users: Injecting drug users surveyed who used a condom the last time they had sex, of those who have had sex in the last 12 months. Men who have sex with men: Men reporting the use of a condom the last time they had anal sex with a male partner.

Population with advanced HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (% of population with advanced HIV)

Population (adults and children) with advanced HIV infection currently receiving ART according to nationally approved treatment protocols (or WHO/ Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS standards).

Population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); females, males and total (number)

Population (adults and children) currently receiving ART according to nationally approved treatment protocols (or WHO/Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS standards). Aggregate calculations: Sum of the individual country values (number). Missing data are not imputed.

AIDS deaths (number)

Deaths (adults and children) due to AIDS. Aggregate calculations: Sum of individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of adults living with HIV, HIV in most-atrisk groups, antiretroviral therapy and condom use in most-at-risk groups: UNAIDS, Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010, UNAIDS/10.11E|JC1958E (Geneva, 2010), Annex 1, pp. 178ff. (available from www.unaids.org/ documents/20101123_GlobalReport_em.pdf). The estimates have been produced and compiled by UNAIDS/WHO and have been shared with national AIDS programmes for review and comments but are not necessarily the official estimates used by governments. Country-level data are submitted biennially to the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), processed by UNAIDS/WHO and reported under the 25 UNGASS indicators. Population receiving antiretroviral therapy and condom use in most-at-risk groups: UNAIDS Global Report cited above, Annex 2, pp. 208ff. Data obtained on: 01 March 2011.

Source of HIV prevalence, advanced HIV with access to antiretroviral therapy, and AIDS deaths: WHO/GHO. HIV prevalence and AIDS deaths have been collected from national AIDS programmes and produced and compiled by UNAIDS/WHO. Data are shared with national AIDS programmes for review and comments but are not necessarily the official estimates used by the national Government. Advanced HIV with access to antiretroviral therapy: WHO, UNAIDS and UNICEF are responsible for reporting data on this indicator at the international level. They have been compiling country-specific data since 2003, which are collected through two international monitoring and reporting processes: (1) Health-sector response to HIV/ AIDS (WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF); (2) Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, UNGASS on HIV/AIDS, 25-27 June 2001 (available from http:// data.unaids.org/publications/irc-pub03/aidsdecla ration_en.pdf). Data obtained on: 11 March 2011.

Source of comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/ AIDS and condom use at last high-risk sex: MDG Indicators Database. Data are based on information collected by UNICEF through household surveys, such as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), reproductive and health surveys, and behavioural surveillance surveys. Nationally representative population-based surveys, such as DHS and MICS, are conducted by national statistical offices or other Government offices under the supervision of national or international agencies. Data obtained on: 28 July 2010.

Malaria and tuberculosis

Malaria cases (per 100,000 population, thousands)

New cases of malaria reported in a given time period. Indicator calculations: Per capita figures are calculated using population figures (WPP2010). Aggregate calculations: Sum of the individual country values (thousands); and weighted averages using the population as weight (per 100,000 population). Missing data are not imputed.

Malaria deaths (number)

Deaths caused by malaria in a given time period. Aggregate calculations: Sum of the individual country values. Missing data are not imputed.

Tuberculosis prevalence/incidence rate (per 100,000 population)

Prevalence: Cases of tuberculosis (TB), all forms, in a population at a given point in time (sometimes referred to as “point prevalence”) expressed per 100,000 population. Includes cases of TB in people with HIV. Incidence: New TB cases arising in one year per 100,000 population. Includes cases of TB in people with HIV. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods; weighted averages using population (WPP2010) as weight.

Population living with tuberculosis; new cases of tuberculosis (thousands)

Population living with tuberculosis and new cases of tuberculosis are only calculated for economic, regional and subregional groupings. Population living with tuberculosis is based on TB prevalence rate and new cases of tuberculosis is based on incidence rate. Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as population for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the tuberculosis prevalence/incidence rate.

Tuberculosis detection rate under DOTS (% of new tuberculosis cases)

New and relapsed TB cases detected in a given year under the internationally recommended tuberculosis control strategy “DOTS”. The meaning of “case detection” used here refers to TB that is diagnosed in a patient and reported within the national surveillance system, thence to WHO. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using the number of TB cases per year (WHO/GHO) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Source of malaria data: WHO World Malaria Programme, World Malaria Report 2010, annexes 7B, p. 185-193 and 7D, p. 203-204; available from www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2010/en/ index.html. The principal data sources are national malaria control programmes (NMCPs) in endemic countries. Standardized data collection forms are sent to each government. Survey data (DHS, MICS and Malaria Indicator Surveys) have been used to complement data submitted by NMCPs. Data obtained on: 01 March 2011.

Source of TB data: WHO/GHO. Prevalence/ incidence: Annual standardized data collection forms are distributed to national tuberculosis control programmes (NTPs) or relevant public health authorities. NTPs that respond to WHO are also asked to update information on earlier years. As a result, case notification and treatment outcome data of a given year may differ from those published previously. Completed forms are collected and reviewed by WHO country offices, regional offices and headquarters. Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) is the name given to the WHO-recommended tuberculosis control strategy. Under DOTS, TB cases are detected and cured with a standard TB control framework. Numbers of new smear-positive cases detected under DOTS programmes are collected as part of routine surveillance recording/ reporting (essential DOTS components). Annual case notifications are collected via an annual form distributed to national TB control programmes by WHO regional and country offices. The TB case notifications reported by countries follow WHO recommendations on case definitions; hence, the data are internationally comparable and no adjustments are needed. Data obtained on: 05 April 2011.

Other health risks

Years of life lost (YLL); communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries (% of YLL)

YLL is an estimate of the average number years a person would have lived had he or she not died prematurely; i.e., a measure of premature mortality. YLL per person represents the difference between the standard life expectancy of a person and his or her age at death; if the age exceeds the life expectancy, YLL equals zero. The standard life expectancy value is consistent across countries and generated using a standard life table. A life table is the statistical representation of the probability that a person will survive for an additional year; and based on that probability, the probability of surviving for another year; and so on.

Suicide rate, female and male (per 100,000 population)

The total number of suicides in a given year divided by the respective mid-year population, expressed per 100,000 population. Suicide is defined as the act of deliberately killing oneself.

Smoking prevalence rate; females/males (% of females/males)

Tobacco smoking includes cigarettes, cigars, pipes or any other smoked tobacco products). Current smoking includes both daily and non-daily or occasional smoking. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population aged 15 and above (WPP2010) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Adolescent tobacco use; females/males (% of population aged 13-15)

Adolescents aged 13-15 who report use of tobacco, including smoking, oral tobacco and snuff, on more than one occasion in the 30 days preceding the survey. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population aged 13-15 (WPP2010) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Alcohol consumption; adults, adults who consume alcohol, females who consume alcohol, and males who consume alcohol (litres per annum)

Total adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) is defined as the sum of recorded and unrecorded amounts of alcohol consumed per adult (aged 15 years and above) over one calendar year, in litres of pure alcohol. Recorded alcohol consumption refers to official statistics (production, import, export and sales or taxation data), while the unrecorded alcohol consumption refers to alcohol that is not taxed and is outside the normal system of governmental control. Under circumstances in which the number of tourists per year is at least the number of inhabitants, the tourist consumption is also taken into account and is deducted from the country’s recorded APC. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using population aged 15 and above (WPP2010) as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Distribution of years of life lost: WHO/GHO. WHO uses a standardized questionnaire for data collection. Cause-of-death distributions are estimated from death registration data, together with data from populationbased epidemiological studies, disease registers and notifications systems for selected specific causes of death. Causes of death for populations without useable deathregistration data are estimated using cause-of-death models together with data from population-based epidemiological studies, disease registers and notification systems for 21 specific causes of death. Data obtained on: 20 June 2011.

Source of suicide data: World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Online report accessed on 1 March 2011. Member Governments report to WHO the causes of death including suicide. Country data are supplemented by data provided by the WHO Regional Office for Western Pacific. Data obtained on: 01 March 2011.

Source of tobacco data: WHO/GHO. Smoking and tobacco-use prevalence data were sourced from survey data provided by countries. WHO has developed a regression method that enables inter-country comparisons to be made using data available for a region in generating estimates, if data are partly missing or incomplete for a particular country. Data obtained on: 24 February 2011.

Source of alcohol consumption data: WHO/GHO, Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data were collected through the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, which was conducted in 2008 in collaboration with all six WHO regional offices. The survey data collection tool was forwarded to every WHO member Government in each region for completion by focal points and national counterparts that were officially nominated by the respective ministry of health. Data were adjusted by WHO for consistency. Data obtained on: 24 March 2011.

Financial and human resources for health

Total health expenditure (% of GDP, per capita PPP dollars)

Total expenditure on health (THE) is the sum of general government and private expenditure on health. Expressed as a percentage of GDP and in per capita PPP dollars. Per capita estimates use the mid-year population as the denominator. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages (% of GDP) using current GDP in United States dollars as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

General government health expenditure (% of government expenditure, per capita PPP dollars)

The sum of outlays for health maintenance, restoration or enhancement paid for in cash or supplied in kind by governmental entities, such as the ministry of health, other ministries, parastatal organizations or social security agencies (without double-counting governmental transfers to social security and extrabudgetary funds). Such expenditure includes transfer payments to households to offset medical care costs and extrabudgetary funds to finance health services and goods. The revenue base of such entities may comprise multiple sources, including external funds. General government expenditure corresponds to the consolidated outlays of all levels of government: territorial authorities (central/federal government, provincial/regional/State/ district authorities, municipal/local government), social security institutions and extrabudgetary funds, including capital outlays. Per capita estimates use the mid-year population as the denominator.

Private health expenditure (% of total health expenditure)

The sum of outlays for health by private entities, such as commercial or mutual health insurance providers, non-profit institutions serving households, resident corporations and quasi-corporations not controlled by governmental authorities with health services delivery or financing, and direct household out-of-pocket payments.

Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private health expenditure)

The direct outlay of households, including gratuities and payments in kind, made to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances and other goods and services, whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or to the enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. Such expenditure includes household payments to public services, non-profit institutions and non-governmental organizations, as well as non-reimbursable cost sharing, deductibles, co-payments and fee-for-service. It excludes payments made by companies that deliver medical and paramedical benefits, whether required by law or not, to their employees, and payments for overseas treatment. Aggregate calculations: Weighted averages using current GDP in United States dollars as weight. Missing data are not imputed.

Physicians/nursing and midwifery personnel (per 10,000 population)

Physicians: Physicians include generalists and specialists. Nursing and midwifery personnel: Nursing and midwifery personnel include professional nurses, professional midwives, auxiliary nurses, auxiliary midwives, enrolled nurses, enrolled midwives and other personnel, such as dental nurses and primary care nurses.

Hospital beds (per 10,000 population)

In-patient hospital beds include hospital and maternity beds and exclude cots and delivery beds.

Source of resources for health data: WHO/GHO. Expenditure data: WHO collects national health accounts and other data from countries. National sources collected by WHO include national health accounts (NHA) reports, national accounts (NA) reports, general government (GG) accounts, public expenditure reviews (PER), government expenditure by purpose reports (Classification of the Functions of Government, COFOG), institutional reports of public entities involved in healthcare provision or financing, notably social security and other health insurance compulsory agencies and ministry of finance (MoF) reports. The most comprehensive and consistent data on health financing is generated from national health accounts. If NHA data are not available, WHO estimates based on technical contacts in-country and publicly available documents and reports that are adjusted to the NHA framework. WHO sends estimates to the respective ministry of health every year for validation. Medical personnel/hospital bed data: WHO collects data from countries. Data collected includes population censuses, labour force and employment surveys, health facility assessments and routine administrative information systems reports (on public expenditure, staffing and payroll as well as professional training, registration and licensure). Most of the data from administrative sources are derived from published national health sector reviews and/or official country reports to WHO offices. Data obtained 23-24 June 2011.

Education

Participation in education

Net enrolment in primary/secondary education (% of primary/secondary school-aged children)

Enrolment of the official age group for primary or secondary education expressed as a percentage of primary or secondary school-aged population. Aggregate calculations: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).

Gross enrolment in tertiary education (% of tertiary school aged population (within 5 years of secondary school age))

Total enrolment in tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to tertiary education in a given school year. For the tertiary level, the population used is that of the five-year age group following on from the secondary school leaving. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Expected duration of education, primary to tertiary, female and male (years)

The number of years a four-year-old girl or boy can be expected to spend in education from primary to tertiary level, including years spent in repetition. Data are disaggregated by sex. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Gender parity index; net primary enrolment, net secondary enrolment and gross tertiary enrolment (female-to-male ratio)

The ratio of female-to-male enrolment ratios for each level of education. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Source of participation in education data: UIS Data Centre. Values are from school registers, school surveys or censuses for data on net enrolment by age and data on enrolment by level of education; population censuses or estimates of school-age population normally obtained from the central statistical office. UIS collects education statistics in aggregate form from official administrative sources at national level. Collected information encompasses data on educational programmes, access, participation, progression, completion, internal efficiency and human and financial resources. Data obtained from 25 April to 01 June 2011.

Staying in school and learning to read

Education survival rate, last grade of primary (% of grade 1 students)

Percentage of a cohort of pupils (or students) who are enrolled in the first grade of primary education in a given school year and are expected to complete primary school.

Adult literacy rate (% of population aged 15 and above)

The percentage of people aged 15 years and above who can both read and write with comprehension a short, simple statement about their everyday life. Generally, literacy also encompasses numeracy or the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Gender parity index, adult literacy rate (femaleto- male ratio)

Literate women divided by literate men (includes women and men aged 15 years and above). Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Illiterate adults, total and female (thousands)

Adult illiteracy is defined as the percentage of people aged 15 years and above who cannot both read and write with comprehension a short, simple statement about their everyday life. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Source of staying in school and learning to read data: UIS Data Centre. Values mainly obtained from population censuses and household and/or labour force surveys. UIS collects education statistics in aggregate form from official administrative sources at the national level. Collected information encompasses data on educational programmes, access, participation, progression, completion, internal efficiency and human and financial resources. Data obtained on: 25 April 2011.

Financial and human resources for education

Public expenditure on education (% of GDP, % of total government expenditure)

Total public expenditure (current and capital) on education. Expressed as a percentage of GDP or as a percentage of total government expenditure. GDP are based on national accounts reports from UNESCO Bureau of Statistics. GDP levels may, in this case, not be comparable with GDP published elsewhere in this Yearbook.

Public expenditure per pupil; primary, secondary and tertiary education (% of GDP per capita)

Total public expenditure per pupil at each level of education, expressed as a percentage of GDP per capita. GDP are based on national accounts reports from the UNESCO Bureau of Statistics. GDP levels may, in this case, not be comparable with GDP published elsewhere in this Yearbook.

Pupil-to-teacher ratio; primary and secondary education (pupils per teacher)

Average number of pupils (students) per teacher in primary OR secondary education in a given school year, based on headcounts for both pupils and teachers. Aggregate calculations: UIS.

Source of resources for education data: UIS Data Centre. Pupil-to-teacher ratio: Values mainly obtained from school registers, teacher records, school census or surveys for data on enrolment and teaching staff. UIS collects education statistics in aggregate form from official administrative sources at national level. Collected information encompasses data on educational programmes, access, participation, progression, completion, internal efficiency and human and financial resources. Public expenditure percentage: Values are from annual financial reports by central or federal governments, state or provincial or regional administrations. Data on GDP are normally available from national accounts reports from the bureau of statistics. For percentage of total government expenditure, values come from annual financial reports prepared by the ministry of finance; national accounts reports by the central statistical office and financial reports from the various government departments engaged in education activities, especially the ministry of education. UIS collects education statistics in aggregate form from official administrative sources at the national level. Collected information encompasses data on educational programmes, access, participation, progression, completion, internal efficiency and human and financial resources. Expenditure per pupil data: UIS, Global Education Digest 2004 (Montreal, 2004), the second in an annual series of UIS global statistical reports that publishes key education indicators from early childhood to higher education. Data obtained on: 01 June 2011 (pupil-to-teacher ratio), 22 February (public expenditure percentage) and 17 February (expenditure per pupil).

Research and development

Gross domestic expenditure on research and development (% of GDP; PPP dollars per capita)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is the expenditure on R&D performed on the national territory during a given period. It includes R&D funds allocated by: (1) firms, organizations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods and services for sale to the general public; (2) the central (federal), State, or local government authorities. They include all departments, offices and other bodies which furnish, but normally do not sell to the community, those common services, other than higher education; (3) institutions of higher education comprising all universities, colleges of technology, other institutions of post-secondary education, and all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with higher education establishments; (4) non-market, private non-profit institutions serving the general public, as well as by private individuals and households; (5) institutions and individuals located outside the political borders of a country, except vehicles, ships, aircraft and space satellites operated by domestic organizations and testing grounds acquired by such organizations, and by all international organizations (except business enterprises) including their facilities and operations within the national borders. Expressed as a percentage of GDP and in current PPP$ per capita.

Researchers, full-time equivalents (per million inhabitants)

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conceptualization or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the planning and management of R&D projects. Postgraduate students at doctoral level (ISCED level 6) who are engaged in R&D are considered researchers. Full-time equivalents (FTE) represent one person-year; e.g., someone working 30% on R&D is considered as 0.3 FTE.

Women researchers (% of R&D headcount)

Female researchers expressed as a percentage of R&D headcount. Headcount (HC) data reflect the total number of persons employed in R&D, whether or not they work part or full time.

Source of research and development data: UIS Data Centre. UIS conducts a biennial R&D survey and collects data through its R&D questionnaire. Data obtained on: 12 May 2011.

Poverty and Inequality

Income poverty and inequality

PPP defined

The purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor is the number of units of a national currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as the United States dollar would buy in the United States.

Population living in poverty (2005 PPP$1.25 a day) (% of population; millions)

The population living on less than $1.25 per day, measured in 2005 PPP. The threshold of PPP$1.25 per day roughly indicates a global poverty line. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods, with weighted averages (for proportional figures) using population as a weight. Data in millions is estimated using the total population for each regional or subregional grouping.

Population living below the national poverty line (% of population; millions)

The national poverty line is defined by each country. Therefore, the figures are not comparable across countries and may not be comparable over time within a country. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods, with weighted averages (for proportional figures) using population as a weight. Data in millions is estimated using the total population for each regional or subregional grouping.

Poverty gap (% of poverty line)

The mean shortfall of the total population from the global poverty line (PPP$1.25 per day in 2005 constant prices) expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects depth of poverty as well as its incidence. Non-poor populations are defined as having zero shortfall.

Income/consumption of poorest quintile (% of income/consumption)

National income or consumption accrued to the poorest income quintiles as a percentage of the total income or consumption.

Gini index (income equality coefficient)

Measures the extent to which the income distribution (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) within an economy deviates from a perfect income equality. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality and of 100 represents absolute inequality.

Source of poverty data (other than Gini index): United Nations MDG Indicators Database. Below PPP$1.25 per day and poverty gap: The indicator is produced by the World Bank Development Research Group based on microlevel data from nationally representative household surveys that are conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies and obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank Group country departments. Global poverty indicators are adjusted for each country using an internationally comparable poverty line, enabling comparisons across countries to be made. National poverty line: Data on developing countries comes mainly from the World Bans Poverty Assessments which are done in close collaboration with national institutions, other development agencies, and civil society groups, including poor people’s organizations. Data are derived from nationally representative household surveys conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies and obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank Group country departments. Data on developed countries are typically gathered from national poverty reports. The data are not adjusted for international comparability. Poorest quintile in national income or consumption: The World Bank Development Research Group produces the indicator using nationally representative household surveys that are conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies and obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank Group country departments. To permit comparability across countries, measures are estimated from the primary data source (tabulations or household-level data) using a consistent method of estimation rather than relying on existing estimates. The estimation from tabulations requires an interpolation method: parameterized Lorenz curves with flexible functional forms are mainly used. Data obtained on: 12 January 2011 (below PPP$1.25 per day) and 07 March (all other data).

Source of Gini index: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data on highincome economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. Data obtained on: 07 March 2011.

Access to water and sanitation

Access to improved water sources/sanitation; rural, urban and total (% of the rural/urban/total population)

Improved water sources: Includes household water connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection and bottled water (if the secondary available source is also improved). Improved sanitation: Facilities which include flush or pour-flush toilet or latrine to: piped sewerage, septic tank or pit; a ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; a pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet or latrine. Aggregate calculations: MDG aggregation and imputation methods, with weighted averages using rural, urban or total population as a weight.

People lacking access to improved water sources/sanitation; rural, urban and total (thousands)

The number of people lacking access to improved water/sanitation; rural, urban and total are only calculated for economic, regional and subregional groupings. Aggregate calculations: Data in thousands are estimated as population for each economic, regional or subregional grouping multiplied by the percent of the population with access to improved water or sanitation.

Source of water and sanitation data: MDG Indicators Database. Countries report data to the WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). The primary data sources used in international monitoring include nationally representative household surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), World Health Surveys (WHS), Living Standards and Measurement Surveys (LSMS), Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaires (CWIQ), Pan Arab Project for Family Health Surveys (PAPFAM) and population censuses. Such data are entered into the JMP database after validation with objective criteria. Data obtained on: 04 August 2010.

Women’s empowerment

Women’s empowerment defined

The United Nations Population Division identifies five components of women’s empowerment: women’s sense of self-worth; the right of choice; the right of access to opportunities and resources; the right to have the power to control their own lives (in and outside the home); and the ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally. Women’s empowerment is illustrated to some degree through the indicators in the present chapter, but it is also linked to many indicators in this Yearbook, such as in the sections on health, education, poverty and inequality, and employment.

Employment sex ratio; overall and non-agricultural employment (employed females per 100 employed males)

Ratio of employed women to employed men. Overall ratio includes all employment sectors; nonagricultural employment includes all sectors other than agriculture. Indicator calculations: Employed females divided by employed males. Aggregate calculations: The ILO Employment Trends unit calculates aggregate employed women and employed men for each economic, regional and subregional group. The aggregate sex ratio is calculated as the aggregate employed women to aggregate employed men.

Employer sex ratio (female employers per 100 male employers)

Ratio of female employers to male employers. Indicator calculations: Female employers divived by male employers. Aggregate calculations: The ILO Employment Trends unit calculates aggregate female employers and male employers for each economic, regional and subregional group. The aggregate sex ratio is calculated as the aggregate female employers to aggregate male employers.

Agriculture/industry/services employment, female and male (% of employed females/males)

Agriculture: Employment in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing in total employment. Industry: Employment in mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction and public utilities (electricity, gas and water) in total employment. Services: Employment in wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communications, finance, insurance, real estate and business services, and community, social and personal services, in total employment. Aggregate calculations: ILO Employment Trends unit.

Employees/Employers/Own account workers/Contributing family workers, female and male (% of employed females/males)

Employees: Those workers who hold the type of job defined as “paid employment jobs”. Paid employment jobs are those jobs that the incumbents hold with explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts, which give them a basic remuneration that does not directly depend on the revenue of the unit for which they work. (The unit may be a corporation, a non-profit institution, a government unit or a household.) Some or all of the tools, capital equipment, information systems and/or premises used by the incumbents may be owned by others, and the incumbents may work under direct supervision of, or according to strict guidelines set by, the owner(s) or persons in the owners’ employment. (Persons in “paid employment jobs” are typically remunerated by wages and salaries, or may be paid partly by commission from sales or by piece-rates, bonuses or in-kind payments such as food, housing or training.) Employers: Those workers who work on their own account or with one or a few partners, and who have, on a continuous basis (including the reference period), engaged one or more persons to work for them in their business as “employee(s)”. Own account workers: Work on their own account or with one or more partners and hold the type of job defined as “a self-employment job”, and have not engaged on a continuous basis any “employees” to work for them during the reference period. Self-employment jobs are those jobs whose remuneration directly depends on the profits (or the potential for profits) derived from the goods and services produced (and wherein own consumption is considered to be part of profits). The incumbents make the operational decisions affecting the enterprise, or delegate such decisions while retaining responsibility for the welfare of the enterprise. In this context “enterprise” includes oneperson operations. Contributing family workers: Hold a “self-employment” job in a market-oriented establishment operated by a related person living in the same household, who cannot be regarded as a partner, because his or her degree of commitment to the operation of the establishment, in terms of working time or other factors to be determined by national circumstances, is not comparable to that of the head of the establishment. Data are disaggregated by sex. Aggregate calculations: ILO Employment Trends unit.

Women in parliament; single or lower house, senate or upper house (% of seats; number of seats)

Seats are usually won by candidates in parliamentary elections. Seats may also be filled by nomination, appointment, indirect election, rotation of members and by-election. Women in parliament figures are expressed as a proportion of all occupied seats in a single or lower house of the national parliaments and of the senate or upper chamber or house of bicameral parliaments. Upper house or senate: Women members in the senate or upper chambers of bicameral parliaments. Lower or single house: Women in the single chamber of unicameral parliaments and lower chamber in bicameral parliaments.

Women’s access to bank loans, land and other property (index)

Bank loans: Women’s access to bank loans is assessed at between 0=full and 1=impossible. Land: Women’s access to land ownership is assessed at between 0=full and 1=impossible. Property other than land: Women’s rights to own property other than land, especially immovable property (i.e., buildings, dwellings or other property), is assessed at between 0=full and 1=no.

Legislation on violence against women (index)

Reflects the existence of laws against (a) domestic violence, (b) sexual assault or rape, and (c) sexual harassment. The index is scored as follows: 0 if specific legislation is in place; 0.25 if legislation is in place but of a general nature; 0.50 if specific legislation is being planned, drafted or reviewed; and 0.75 if planned legislation is of a general nature; 1.00 if there is no legislation concerning violence against women. Data are averaged across the three legal categories.

Source of women in parliament: United Nations MDG Indicators Database. Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments (available from www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm). National parliaments provide official statistics to IPU. Data are not adjusted for international comparability. Data obtained on: 03 March 2011.

Source of employment data: ILO, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM), Sixth Edition (available from www.ilo.org/empelm/pubs/WCMS_114060/langen/ index.htm). The ILO Employment Trends unit has designed and maintains three econometric models that are used in estimating labour market indicators of the countries and years for which no real data exist, disaggregated by sex and age. Employment ratios and employment by sector: Information was derived from a variety of sources, including household or labour force surveys, official estimates and censuses provided by countries to the ILO. In a very few cases, information was derived from insurance records and establishment surveys. Ratio of employers and employment by status: Most of the information was gathered from three international repositories of labour market data: (a) the ILO Bureau of Statistics, Yearbook of Labour Statistics (LABORSTA) database; (b) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); and (c) the Labour Market Indicators Library (LMIL). Data from all three sources were based on data provided by countries. Data obtained from 04 March to 27 April 2011.

Source of legislation on violence against women, and women’s access to loans and property: The Gender, Institutions and Development database, OECD Development Centre. Source of legislation on violence against women and women’s access to loans and property: Based on two main premises that guarantee comparability across countries and ensure the highest level of quality. Regional experts estimate data. All low- and middle-income countries with a population exceeding 1 million inhabitants were selected. A university team of researchers leads the external review and harmonization processes. Scoring of social institutions variables is finalized by the OECD Development Centre. Data obtained on: 10 May 2011.

 
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