factories but not the cities _ leaving farm work but not the
homeland" is the slogan of the Township Enterprises,
launched in China in the 1970s, first in the coastal areas and later
in the rural areas. Called commune- and brigade-run enterprises
prior to 1984, Township Enterprises initially followed the strict
guidelines of the central economy.
economic liberalization, the Government introduced major changes,
allowing ownership alternatives ranging from individual-owned,
village-run cooperatives, to joint ventures where enterprises were
free to decide on the means of production and marketing. Township
Enterprises that fully employ local resources are actively promoted.
There is also assistance in human resources development and training
on management and procurement.
1988, special attention has been given to joint ventures and
cooperatively managed enterprises with outside investment, the rapid
development of new products using modern technology, management
techniques, study missions, exhibitions and trade fairs. By 1998,
Township Enterprises totalled 20 million. Some 6,600 enterprises
have built factories overseas, demonstrating their conformity to
international standards to produce, sell and manage.
a high degree of coexistence and mutual promotion between Township
Enterprises and the agriculture sector. The enterprises show a way
for rural surplus labour to operate from their homes in the rural
areas. The Government continues to exert considerable influence in
planning, executing and monitoring the programme at all levels.