There have been many attempts to measure bilateral trade costs. Earlier studies directly measured trade cost components such as: international transport costs; or the cost of moving goods from factory to sea port. To more comprehensively capture all components of trade costs, others inferred trade frictions from gross trade and output data. ESCAP, together with the World Bank, now maintains a global dataset of such comprehensive bilateral trade costs calculated on that basis (i.e., the ESCAP-World Bank trade cost database).
Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) face higher costs of trade because they lack direct access to the sea, thereby reducing their competitiveness in terms of trade and investment. The WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (WTO TFA) has potential to reduce trade costs and boost trade for LLDCs through the article on ‘Freedom of Transit’ which protects “legitimate” interests of the transit country’s access to the sea. This can help LLDCs integrate in to global value chains (GVCs) and transition from landlocked to land-linked.
The paper discusses financing infrastructure for sustainable development in the Pacific Island Countries. Some of the challenges the Pacific islands are facing are in accessing to sufficient and appropriate financing; and the high costs of infrastructure maintenance due to insufficient funds or planning. The Pacific Regional Infrastructure Facility (PRIF) supports investment in economic infrastructure and provides advisory services, knowledge sharing and best practices benefitting several Pacific island countries.
This is a presentation on Universal Service in Pakistan-The Broadband Perspective by Mr Mudassar Hussain, Member (Telecom), Ministry of Information Technology for the Capacity building workshop on improving broadband connectivity in Incheon, Republic of Korea, on 1-2 September 2015.