By Rahul Sen and Ramkishen Rajan
This policy brief has three broad objectives. First, it highlights the acute difficulties in estimating Mode 4 trade and analyzes the importance of liberalizing Mode 4 trade and the gains that could potentially be reaped by developing countries by doing so. Second, it focuses on the increasing importance of bilateral agreements as vehicles to enhance Mode 4 trade. Finally, it briefly discusses some policy implications going forward with reference to possible paths towards enhancing the participation of developing countries in Mode 4 trade.