This publication describes developments and trends in the economic, trade and population growth, which will have impact on tramsport and communications. Trends in the growth of various transport sectors are analysed. The development of roads, railways, shipping, ports, inland waterways and the air transport sector have shown significant progress since 1996. Increasing scarcity of financial resources has accelerated institutional changes and infrastructure financing.
Chapter 1 clarifies the main issues involved in devising pricing systems to promote sustainable development. Chapter 2 defines optimal pricing policies and addresses the range of complexities that arise due to the nature of the cost structure and market distortions found in the industry. Chapter 3 examines urban transport policy and the role of pricing and financing in promoting sustainable development and an appropriate allocation of resources for public transport.
The review directs attention to some experiences in Asia and other regions with respect to the development of international land transport routes, and to highlight the need of developing ESCAP Agreements on Asian Highway (AH) and Trans-Asian Railway (TAR) networks. The review suggests that there is a substantial body of relevant experiences to draw upon with respect to the development of land routes in the region, to facilitate a regionally coordinated process of identifying the appropriate contents and formats of such agreements.
The publication reviews the dynamics of the region's environmental conditions and the status of national and regional responses to the changing environmental situation. It analyses the aggregate effect of policy response on environment and sustainable development across the region as well as illustrates successful local, national, regional and international initiatives and best practices. In the light of existing trends, the report explores the prospects and identifies the challenges and opportunities for sustainable development for the region in the 21st century.
Road safety problems are increasing in many ESCAP member countries and effective action needs to be taken if the situation is not to continue deteriorating. This publication demonstrates how safety activities can be developed by implementing intervention in three stages: Stage I - Development of a coordinated approach; Stage II - Development and implementation of priority action plan; and Stage III - Development of five-year national road safety programmes.
The theme chosen for this issue of the Bulletin is urban transport in the Asian and Pacific region. Space is limited, but an attempt has been made to select topics that focus on some of the urban transportation issues in the region, such as traffic impact mitigation for new developments, sustainable transport and air pollution. It is hoped that these articles will increase awareness of policy implications and generate further debate.
The institutional structure of the Panchayati Raj, the local self-government system in India, and the implementation of rural development programmes in the context of a participatory approach have been examined in this paper. Although the Panchayati Raj institutions have existed for many years, owing to inherent weaknesses in the systems they were not very effective in the implementation of rural development programmes. Through constitutional amendments a third tier of local self-government has been set up and steps have been taken to remove the inherent shortcomings of the system.
With the globalization of markets, the need for efficient and reliable international transport routes and networks has become more significant. Their development requires creating new infrastructure, or upgrading existing national and international infrastructures to accommodate the increase in traffic volumes. This publication examines routes and networks, container traffic, distribution of volumes, and the commitment to rail and ocean carriers.
This publication, the final report of a series on road safety, reflects the road safety situation in the region at the end of 1994. The report, based on the analyses of the questionnaires and from other sources, outlines the problems in Asia and the Pacific, illustrates nature and characteristics of the problem in selected countries, reviews current policies and practices and summarizes the situation in each road-safety-relevant sector. The issues influencing the strategy for the region are highlighted.
This volume describes in detail the results based on the ESCAP Questionnaire on Road Safety in the Asia-Pacific Region. The survey, in addition to supplementary material from other surveys and published databases, comprises the inventory. It serves as reference material and data source for concerned authorities of the countries of Asia and the Pacific and other parties active in the region and concerned with road safety.