How much of international trade costs can be mitigated through implementation of trade facilitation measures and policies? What measures and policies affect trade costs the most? This paper presents findings from an initial analysis of new non-tariff trade cost estimates and their determinants, based on a bilateral database of comprehensive trade cost maintained by ESCAP. Among the top trade facilitating economies are Malaysia, the United States, China, Republic of Korea and Thailand, with Japan and Germany following closely.
The similarities yet differences across South Asian countries, and their differential response to recent food and oil price shocks, gives a useful opportunity to better understand the structure of inflation in these economies. Analysis of the internal and external balance and evidence on demand and supply shocks implies output is largely demand determined but inefficiencies on the supply side perpetuate inflation. Procyclical policy amplifies the negative impact of supply shocks on output.
While much has been said about the need to promote intraregional trade and the importance of reducing associated trade costs, quantitative estimates of such costs have been lacking. A new comprehensive measure of international trade costs is applied in this paper to calculate ad valorem trade costs within and between 4 Asian subregions, including ASEAN and SAARC. Extra-regional trade costs of the 4 subregions with free trade areas outside Asia, such as NAFTA and the EU, as well as their trade costs with China, India and Japan are also calculated.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about companies operating in a manner that is sustainable, cognizant of their responsibility to the wider community in which they are located. CSR is more than simply acts of philanthropy or allocating a proportion of its earnings to worthy causes;it is strategic in nature, and is about how a business actually functions.
Climate change is one of the greatest environmental issues of our time and the Asia-Pacific region is already experiencing its adverse impacts. Studies suggest that the costs of inaction on reducing the consumption of fossil fuels, the main source of climate change, would be many times the costs of action. This report stresses the need to take decisive steps quickly to get the developing countries in this region on course to make inroads in the global effort to combat climate change and achieve sustainable development and green growth.
The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report (APTIR) is a recurrent publication prepared by the Trade and Investment Division. It aims to deepen understanding of regional trends and developments in trade and investment; emerging issues in trade, investment and trade facilitation policies; and impacts of these policies on countries’ abilities to meet the challenges of achieving inclusive and sustainable development. APTIR 2010 describes and analyses the developments in both intraregional and interregional trade and investment since mid-2009. It is organized in six sections.
Most papers in this volume are a result from the Research Workshop "Rising non-tariff protectionism and crisis recovery" which was held on 14 and 15 December 2009 as part of the Macao Regional Knowledge Hub (MARKHUB) workshop series and was organized by the secretariats of ESCAP, UNCTAD and WTO. MARKHUB research workshops were the main modality of the Macao Regional Knowledge Hub project funded by the Government of Macao, China and implemented by the Trade and Investment Division of ESCAP from 2006 to 2010.
This paper discusses the potential for cross-South Pacific trade between selected Southeast Asian and Latin American economies. The objective of this discussion is to identify obstacles for more intensive trade between the observed countries. Firstly, the paper reviews trends in trade flows and trade patterns between the selected economies, and by using several trade performance indicators it finds the level of trade still relatively low. It then discusses the possible reasons for this state of affairs.
2010 has seen an impressive recovery of the Asia-Pacific region from the Great Recession of 2008/09. Led by the large economies of China and India, output growth in the region rebounded in 2009 and gathered further strength in 2010. But the region is faced with a weakening of growth in the developed economies which are grappling with a combination of weak household demand and fiscal retrenchment.
The region needs to invest in an efficient system of regional infrastructure for a seamless Asia to emerge. This will provide the foundation for Asian common markets and facilitate the creation of an eventual pan-Asian community. None of this will be easy, but it will have to be done by building institutions, harmonizing policies and regulations, developing and aligning standards, and, most crucially, attracting the required capital to the right kinds of regional projects.