During the last three and half decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth, with the average annual GDP growth rate being 9.3% for 1978 to 2014. At that rate, real GDP doubles every seven years. China’s real per capita GDP has risen from only 5.5% of the U.S. level in 1978 to about 25% in 2014. In 2014 the per capita GDP has reached about $7584 US dollars (current price, World Development Indicators), or $12608 international dollar (2011-year PPP constant price, World Development Indicators), which is about 31% of the level of high income OECD countries.
Most of the developing countries are confronted with scarcity of natural and financial resources and, therefore, rapid economic growth using up the resource endowment of the economy comes at the expense of the future growth and poses a number of challenges for the economy.
As governments transition towards e-government in Asia and the Pacific, there is growing acknowledgement of the role that e-government could play to harness ICTs for women’s empowerment and gender equality. However, much of e-government policy and implementation still do not take into account the differentiated access to, and impact of, technology for men and women.
The Environment and Development Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change of Vietnam (IMHEN) jointly designed a study to establish a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) programme for “Waste-to-Resources for Cities in Vietnam” that can support the nation-wide adoption of waste-to-resource approaches, reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the urban solid waste management, and contribute to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Digitalisation has enabled the emergence of low value consignments trade and has established a platform for SMEs in developing countries to participate in global trade. However, with companies involved in low value consignments trade being more sensitive to trade costs, and e-commerce particularly hinging on efficient delivery, transportation and payment systems, trade costs entailing high fixed cost components and lacking infrastructure can easily make trade uneconomic.
Older persons, particularly the oldest-old, are the fastest growing population segment in India and many of them require or will require long-term care in the future. The paper discusses policies on population ageing in India, such as the National Policy on Older Persons and the National Programme for Health Care for the Elderly. It further discusses the health status of older persons in India and projects future care needs.
Population ageing is becoming an increasing challenge in Fiji. The demographic transformation has been accompanied by widespread socioeconomic changes, which have principally affected social support systems. With decreasing family size and changing economic demands, support systems for the most vulnerable have come under severe stress. A combination of factors, including low economic growth, a large informal sector, high unemployment, mandatory early retirement, pose a challenge to income security for older persons in Fiji.