While the International Production Network (IPN) phenomenon has accelerated trade and investment linkages between countries in East and South-East Asia, the remainder of the region has not matched those countries in this process. The objective of this study is to explore the reasons for this by using India’s performance in the Asian IPNs as a case study for other countries that are trailing behind in this area.
By Naoko Shinkai and Zenebe Bashaw
The volume of trade worldwide has increased as various trade barriers have been removed over time. Tariffs are one of the trade barriers that trading countries have made efforts to reduce. Tariff rates are determined based on the category that trade partners belong to. There are six possible categories for classifying trade partners: General, Temporary, World Trade Organization (WTO), Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Least Developed Country (LDC) and Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA).
The 2008/9 global economic crisis triggered changes in real economies and trade in all countries, including those in Asia, which adopted the so-called export-led growth model. With these drastic changes in trade flows, and the need to counteract potential adverse effects, the old debate on the advantages and flaws of the export-led model has re-opened, adding new concerns to the debate such as aspects of sustainability and inclusivity.
By Chandrima Sikdar and Biswajit Nag
The India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) came into effect on 1 January 2010 with regard to Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. For the remaining ASEAN members it will come into force after they have completed their internal requirements. With this background, the present study analyses the impact of this free trade agreement (FTA) on India and the ASEAN members.
The Asia-Pacific Development Journal (APDJ) is published twice a year by the Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).
The primary objective of the APDJ is to provide a platform for the exchange of knowledge, experience, ideas, information and data on all aspects of economic and social development issues and concerns facing the region and to stimulate policy debate and assist in the formulation of policy.
This paper explores the trade facilitation performance of India and Mekong countries using a new measure of bilateral comprehensive trade costs, complemented by a review of specific trade policy and trade facilitation-related indicators. A model of comprehensive trade costs is then developed and estimated using these specific indicators in an effort to identify policies and measures that have a significant effect on trade costs, and to prioritize them.
This paper analyses the effect of public and private health expenditures on the achievement of
health-related MDGs. It finds that three quarters of the variation of health-related MDG
indicators can be explained by public and private health expenditure per capita when controlling
for levels of income and demographic factors such as age dependency ratio, urbanization and
population density. In addition, the analysis finds that marginal gain in health performance is