The Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific is a peer-reviewed journal published once a year by the Transport Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The main objectives of the Bulletin are to provide a medium for the sharing of knowledge, experience, ideas, policy options and information on the development of transport infrastructure and services in the Asia-Pacific region; to stimulate policy-oriented research; and to increase awareness of transport policy issues and responses.
Given the increased demand for urban mobility due to rapid urbanization and rural-urban migration, Asian countries need to make a significant investment in improving urban transport infrastructure and systems. There is a need for evidence-based policies and sustainable and inclusive plans for the urban public transport systems that tackle these pressing issues. In this Bulletin these issues are explored with a focus on countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It consists of four articles:
a. Impact of bus rapid transit on urban air pollution: commuter’s exposure to PM2.5 in Ahmedabad by Shivanand Swamy, Madhav Pai and Shelly Kulshrestha;
b. Sustainable and equitable transport system in Delhi: issues and policy direction by Absar Alam;
c. Towards an inclusive public transport system in Pakistan by Muhammad Adeel, Anthony G.O Yeh and Zhang Feng; and
d. The institutional environment for sustainable transport development by Abdul Quium.
The publication is the result of an analytical review, outlining the perspectives of ESCAP members and associate members with respect to progress towards, and fundamental requirements for, the realization of gender equality and women's empowerment in Asia and the Pacific.
Published since 1986 by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Asia-Pacific Population Journal (APPJ) brings out high-quality, evidence-based and forward-looking articles on a wide range of population and development issues in Asia and the Pacific.
This issue of the Asia-Pacific Population Journal contains the following articles:
The contribution of age-specific mortality towards male and female life expectancy differentials in India and selected States, 1970-2013. By Vladimir Canudas-Romo, Nandita Saikia and Nadia Diamond-Smith
Demography of a Small Island Nation: Findings from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing of the Republic of Marshall Islands. By Bhakta Gubhaju, Arthur Jorari and Gerald Haberkorn
Scenarios of population change in the coastal Ganges Brahmaputra Delta (2011-2051). By Sylvia Szabo, Dilruba Begum, Sate Ahmad, Zoe Matthews and Peter Kim Streatfield
This paper examines the skill needs of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, and the potential for these needs to be filled by migrant workers. It assesses the institutional structures with regards to skill development in countries of origin and destination and potential areas for future reform to bring needs and capacities into line.
Trade facilitation (the simplification and harmonization of import, export, and transit procedures) including paperless trade (the use and exchange of electronic data and documents to support the trade transaction process), has taken increasing importance as evidenced by the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement reached in December 2013, as well as the growing number of regional and subregional initiatives aimed at facilitating the electronic exchange of information along international supply chains. This book features the results of the 2015 UNRCs Joint Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade implementation for the Asia-Pacific region and incorporates this information into an econometric analysis, estimating the impact of trade facilitation on trade costs. It recommends that a holistic but step-by-step approach towards trade facilitation implementation be considered, emphasizing the importance of paperless trade the need to enable the cross-border exchange and legal recognition of electronic data and documents for trade facilitation.
Cities in developing countries across Asia-Pacific are struggling to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW). This is especially the case in secondary cities and small towns, which often face a lack of resources and know-how. Because the waste stream in these cities is usually high in organic content (50-80 per cent) and recyclable materials (10-20 per cent), waste-to-resource initiatives are viable options for sustainable MSW management.
Waste-to-resource initiatives that are low-cost, low-tech, decentralized and community-based offer municipalities useful solutions for managing their MSW. However, the sustainability of such solutions depends on a number of key factors, such as the separation of waste at source, the effective engagement of communities, and steady and predictable sources of revenue.
Using quantitative data and qualitative information derived from field experience, this paper concludes that effective partnerships between a diverse range of stakeholders must be designed and fostered in order to achieve sustainability. The paper provides an analysis of stakeholder roles for the establishment of effective partnerships in four case study cities of Matale and Ratnapura (Sri Lanka), and Kon Tum and Quy Nhon (Viet Nam), where waste-to-resource facilities have been established and explores the resources of stakeholders and how these can be mobilized to support waste-to-resource initiatives for revenue generation and long-term sustainability.
Much hinges on the outcome of the World Trade Organization's Tenth Ministerial Conference in Nairobi in mid-December. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is marking the 20th anniversary of its establishment during the Uruguay Round, almost half a century after 23 countries set up its predecessor for trade in goods, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Yet the mood is far from celebratory. The downbeat feeling is more related to the question of the WTO's relevance, now and in future. The WTO was established in 1995 by 123 countries to seek freer and fairer trade by performing three main functions: 1) to serve as a permanent platform for negotiating on rules and market access issues; 2) to monitor implementation of the WTO Agreements, the legal ground-rules for international trade; and 3) to assist members to resolve disputes under the Dispute Settlement Mechanism. Its inability to shake off the shadow of the widely perceived 'failure' of the Doha Round (launched in November 2001) explains this sense of impotence and tests the 162 members' resolve to make the WTO work for all.
The rapid increase of the number of older persons, particularly the oldest-old - those above 80 years - increases the need for long-term care of older persons in the Asia-Pacific region. This working paper series examines the prevailing system of provision and financing of long-term care for older persons in selected countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
The rapid increase of the number of older persons, particularly the oldest-old - those above 80 years - increases the need for long-term care for older persons in the Asia-Pacific region. This working paper series examines the prevailing system of provision and financing of long-term care for older persons in selected countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
This paper examines the legal frameworks governing international migration in North and Central Asia. It shows how these frameworks have developed since 1991 at the national, bilateral and subregional level, in both countries of origin and destination, and how effective these frameworks are at protecting migrants and ensuring that international migration in the subregion is safe, orderly, regular and responsible. To this end, it concludes with recommendations for future reforms.