With the globalization of markets, the need for efficient and reliable international transport routes and networks has become more significant. Their development requires creating new infrastructure, or upgrading existing national and international infrastructures to accommodate the increase in traffic volumes. This publication examines routes and networks, container traffic, distribution of volumes, and the commitment to rail and ocean carriers.
The theme chosen for this issue of the Bulletin is urban transport in the Asian and Pacific region. Space is limited, but an attempt has been made to select topics that focus on some of the urban transportation issues in the region, such as traffic impact mitigation for new developments, sustainable transport and air pollution. It is hoped that these articles will increase awareness of policy implications and generate further debate.
The institutional structure of the Panchayati Raj, the local self-government system in India, and the implementation of rural development programmes in the context of a participatory approach have been examined in this paper. Although the Panchayati Raj institutions have existed for many years, owing to inherent weaknesses in the systems they were not very effective in the implementation of rural development programmes. Through constitutional amendments a third tier of local self-government has been set up and steps have been taken to remove the inherent shortcomings of the system.
This publication, the final report of a series on road safety, reflects the road safety situation in the region at the end of 1994. The report, based on the analyses of the questionnaires and from other sources, outlines the problems in Asia and the Pacific, illustrates nature and characteristics of the problem in selected countries, reviews current policies and practices and summarizes the situation in each road-safety-relevant sector. The issues influencing the strategy for the region are highlighted.
This volume describes in detail the results based on the ESCAP Questionnaire on Road Safety in the Asia-Pacific Region. The survey, in addition to supplementary material from other surveys and published databases, comprises the inventory. It serves as reference material and data source for concerned authorities of the countries of Asia and the Pacific and other parties active in the region and concerned with road safety.
The review provides a general background on recent developments and trends in economic, trade and population growth that would have a significant impact on developments in transport and communications in the ESCAP region. It demonstrates that the dynamic economic growth of the countries in the region is placing a considerable strain on the transport and communications infrastructure and services. The rapid growth of cities and their economic prosperity are also creating additional problems in urban areas.
The provision of adequate infrastructure, along with macroeconomic stability and a long-term development strategy, is one of the necessary conditions for sustainable economic and social development. To this end, the study highlighted the inadequacies of existing infrastructure facilities in countries of the ESCAP region and also estimated their future requirements. The study found that between 1993 and 2000, around $ 1,400 billion would be required for infrastructure development in developing countries of the region.
This review provides an account of recent trends of development in the regional transport and communications sector. Divided in three parts, the first part of the review contains an analysis of the economic, trade and population growth trends influencing the supply of infrastructure and the provision of services in all modes of transport and telecommunications. It also outlines the major policy initiatives concerning regulation, operation and management and mitigation of the adverse impact of transport activities.