These are additional materials to the Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2011:
Product Space Maps
When considering the most appropriate diversification path, it is useful to get a sense of how products are related. This might be done empirically by observing the positions that the country occupies on the “product space map”. The following maps show the occupation of the product space by Asia-Pacific least developed countries in 1991 and 2009. In each graph, small circles represent a single product in the product space, which is independent of the country. The lines linking the products indicate associations, based on the probability that the export of one is accompanied by the export of the other. The large circle at the centre of the map represents the core of the space where many products—largely manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment—are linked by a dense network of lines. Further out, around the periphery, are clusters of less connected products, including some traditional industries of developing countries, such as garments, fish, fruit, vegetable oils and textiles. Of these more peripheral clusters, the largest is that of garments, for which the products, arranged in a circle in the upper middle of the space, are so closely connected that the lines fill the circle solidly with blue. Red squares represent the effective products of the country depicted in the figure - those for which the share in national exports is higher than the share in world exports. The graphs show that product diversification has mainly occurred in the periphery of the product space, where products are not very well connected with each other and there are fewer opportunities for further diversification towards more complex products. For the creation of these product space maps, the software created by Cesar Hidalgo was used to generate the information regarding the product space network. The software and a compilation of country product maps for the years 1985 and 2000 are available at the website: The product space and the wealth of nations. The networks created were then reformatted using a circular layout using programme Cytoscape, available at: http://www.cytoscape.org/.