This handbook presents a general framework for the implementation of e-Business standards in the agrifood sector. The handbook looks specifically at four e-Business standards developed by UN/CEFACT in the areas of electronic phytosanitary certificates; electronic reporting of sustainable fishery management; electronic exchange of laboratory analysis results; and management and exchange for certificates for trade in CITES controlled species.
This guide for policy makers and trainers provides a succinct overview of articles of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) particularly relevant to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and identifies examples of SME-specific programmes, measures and interventions that can support the implementation of such provisions. In order to maximize the benefits of the TFA for SMEs, it is suggested that the trade facilitation measures featured in the TFA be mainstreamed in the broader SME development and internationalization initiatives and programmes that may already be in place.
This brief introduces the case of streamlining and automating procedures for agricultural trade in the Philippines. In particular, this brief outlines the implementation of the Department of Agriculture (DA) Trade System, which seeks to automate processes for the trade regulatory agencies involved in agricultural trade and to facilitate the use of electronic documents and procedures. By considering the case of the Philippines, this brief highlights some of the key challenges and success factors for implementing automated systems for agrifood trade.
Trade facilitation (the simplification and harmonization of import, export, and transit procedures) including paperless trade (the use and exchange of electronic data and documents to support the trade transaction process), has taken increasing importance as evidenced by the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement reached in December 2013, as well as the growing number of regional and subregional initiatives aimed at facilitating the electronic exchange of information along international supply chains.
Reducing Trade Costs in Asia-Pacific Developing Countries (Studies in Trade and Investment No. 84). International trade has been a major engine for economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific. However, overall trade costs remain excessively high in many developing countries of the region. Part I of this publication provides an overview of trade costs in Asia and the Pacific, based on the most recent update of the ESCAP-World Bank Trade Cost Database. Policies and factors affecting international trade costs are identified.
How much of international trade costs can be mitigated through implementation of trade facilitation measures and policies? What measures and policies affect trade costs the most? This paper updates findings from Duval and Utoktham (2011), based on ESCAP-World Bank Trade Costs Database. Among the top trade facilitating regions are East and North-East Asia, followed by South-East Asia. The dominance of those regions are fully consistent with the trade-led growth strategies of these economies and their emphasis on reducing international trade costs.
The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report (APTIR) is a recurrent publication prepared by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It provides information on and independent analyses of trends and developments in: (a) intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; (b) foreign direct investment; (c) trade facilitation measures; (d) trade policy measures; and (e) preferential trade policies and agreements.
This report features the results of the first UNRCsJoint Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation. This global survey was initiated in September 2014 by the United Nations Regional Commissions (UNRCs) i.e. ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP and ESCWA to collect data and information on trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation from their respective member states.
Most countries in Central Asia face high trade costs due to their lack of territorial access to the sea, remoteness and isolation from world markets and high transit costs. Reducing trade costs and shortening transit time is a fundamental step towards integrating these countries into the global market. While it is well recognized that transport and logistics infrastructure play key roles in this regard, there is a growing consensus that trade facilitation is also crucial to reducing trade costs through streamlining of the trade process.
The use and exchange of electronic data and documents to support international trade transaction processes, otherwise known as Paperless Trade, is an important means of facilitating trade and one of the keys to reducing trade costs and enabling developing economies to more effectively use of trade as an engine of growth and sustainable development.