Structural transformation, economic diversification and logistics are some of the issues explored in this new book from the Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT). The volume's essays use various methodologies to provide new perspectives on the region's growth and prospects. Individual chapter's focus on: trade policy in Nepal; logistics in Bangladesh and Thailand; Sri Lankan exports; and SMEs in Cambodia.
The book contains the following chapters:
I. Structural transformation and trade policy: Case of Nepal
by Paras Karel
Edited by Ravi Ratnayake, Rajan Sudesh Ratna, Martina Francesca Ferracane and Yann Duval.
In the post-crisis world, new drivers of growth are required to drive further reductions in poverty. This new book from the Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) examines the role of trade facilitation measures in lowering barriers to trade and raising incomes. In addition to a review of relevant literature and theoretical findings, empirical case studies are presented from across the region including: Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, and China.
The present document is based on the forthcoming Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2013 (henceforth the Report), which is the main substantive document prepared for the third session of the Committee on Trade and Investment. The Report comprises two parts. In the first part, there is a focus on trends and developments in trade in merchandise and commercial services, foreign direct investment flows, performance in trade facilitation, and reliance on preferential policies and trade agreements from an Asia-Pacific perspective.
Trade has the potential to contribute to economic growth and to more and better jobs. Whether trade contributes to growth that is inclusive, in the sense that all people can contribute to and benefit from growth triggered by trade, is likely to depend on country specificities including institutional pre-conditions and policies applied in domains other than trade. This paper identifies specific challenges for making trade inclusive and identifies ways for dealing with them.
The Cocoa Grower’s Association (CGA) in the Republic of Vanuatu is a fundamental example of how the organization of local cooperatives can make a significant impact and create an environment for inclusive trade. This paper will review a case study of implementing a governing association that coordinates cocoa cooperatives in Vanuatu, and which is focused on organizing the production and trade in the region, as a method to highlight key lessons learned and potential for scalability in furthering inclusive trade goals.
This paper studies the linkages between international openness and inclusive growth, understood as better access to productive employment and entrepreneurship, the reduction of poverty and a more equal income distribution. It introduces the notion of inclusive trade as the linkages through which international integration can contribute to inclusive growth. Four dimensions of potential linkages are analyzed, namely: (i) aggregate employment and its distribution, (ii) aggregate productivity, (iii) poverty and income inequality, and (iv) equal opportunities.
Myanmar, which is one of the 13 least developed countries (LDCs) in Asia and the Pacific, is relatively rich in natural resources, has young workforce, and is close to the world’s most dynamic trading economies, including China and India. With an appropriate policy mix, improved business environment and a stable, but reformed political system, the country is expected to fulfill its considerable potential and move ahead with delivering on economic development.
The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report (APTIR) is a recurrent publication prepared by the Trade and Investment Division. It aims to deepen understanding of regional trends and developments in trade and investment; emerging issues in trade, investment and trade facilitation policies; and impacts of these policies on countries’ abilities to meet the challenges of achieving inclusive and sustainable development. APTIR 2012 focuses on trends and developments in the economies of Asia and the Pacific in their post-recovery from the 2008-2009 crisis and trade collapse.
Agriculture remains the backbone of most Asia-Pacific developing economies and approximately 50% of the Asian working population is employed in the agricultural sector. In view of the export potential of agricultural products in the region, it is urgent to reduce trade costs in this sector, particularly since they are typically twice as high as those for manufactured goods. Agricultural trade costs within each of the different Asian subregions and country groups are not found to differ sharply, particularly when tariff costs are excluded.
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs), including micro enterprises, have emerged as an engine of growth for most countries of Asia and the Pacific. Their contribution is well known particularly for increasing production, export and employment, and thus income generation. Above all, SMEs serve as a seed bed for enterprise development. Each country has evolved its own policy, institutional framework and support mechanism suiting its needs, stage of development, ethos, culture and understanding of SMEs role.