UNNExT Brief No. 19, Electronic Phytosanitary Certificates for Agricultural Commodities in Malaysia. Electronic certification is an important measure for facilitating agri-food trade. Complex global supply chains trade, advances in modes of transportation and increased trade volumes at entry points in the Asia Pacific countries has enhanced the importance of electronic certification (or e-Cert). Consequently, an increasing number of countries are moving away from the paper-based documentation system.
In this working paper we develop a comprehensive list of paperless trade measures and provisions in regional trade agreements (RTAs) and examine the extent to which they are featured in various RTAs, including in the TPP and ASEAN agreements. The number of paperless trade measures in RTAs is found to have doubled between 2005-8 and 2013-16 at the global level. Most recent RTAs contain more and deeper provisions than those featured in the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement.
This study introduces a new dataset of bilateral value added trade costs for the goods and services sectors, based on a measure derived from the micro-founded gravity model and using data from the OECD-WTO TiVA database. This is the first study to calculate value added trade costs for a set of developed and developing economies, both for the goods and services sectors. Overall, we find that, in the goods sector and in absolute term, international trade costs calculated using value added data are lower than those calculated using gross trade and output data.
This handbook presents a general framework for the implementation of e-Business standards in the agrifood sector. The handbook looks specifically at four e-Business standards developed by UN/CEFACT in the areas of electronic phytosanitary certificates; electronic reporting of sustainable fishery management; electronic exchange of laboratory analysis results; and management and exchange for certificates for trade in CITES controlled species.
This guide for policy makers and trainers provides a succinct overview of articles of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) particularly relevant to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and identifies examples of SME-specific programmes, measures and interventions that can support the implementation of such provisions. In order to maximize the benefits of the TFA for SMEs, it is suggested that the trade facilitation measures featured in the TFA be mainstreamed in the broader SME development and internationalization initiatives and programmes that may already be in place.
This brief introduces the case of streamlining and automating procedures for agricultural trade in the Philippines. In particular, this brief outlines the implementation of the Department of Agriculture (DA) Trade System, which seeks to automate processes for the trade regulatory agencies involved in agricultural trade and to facilitate the use of electronic documents and procedures. By considering the case of the Philippines, this brief highlights some of the key challenges and success factors for implementing automated systems for agrifood trade.
Trade facilitation (the simplification and harmonization of import, export, and transit procedures) including paperless trade (the use and exchange of electronic data and documents to support the trade transaction process), has taken increasing importance as evidenced by the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement reached in December 2013, as well as the growing number of regional and subregional initiatives aimed at facilitating the electronic exchange of information along international supply chains.
Reducing Trade Costs in Asia-Pacific Developing Countries (Studies in Trade and Investment No. 84). International trade has been a major engine for economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific. However, overall trade costs remain excessively high in many developing countries of the region. Part I of this publication provides an overview of trade costs in Asia and the Pacific, based on the most recent update of the ESCAP-World Bank Trade Cost Database. Policies and factors affecting international trade costs are identified.
How much of international trade costs can be mitigated through implementation of trade facilitation measures and policies? What measures and policies affect trade costs the most? This paper updates findings from Duval and Utoktham (2011), based on ESCAP-World Bank Trade Costs Database. Among the top trade facilitating regions are East and North-East Asia, followed by South-East Asia. The dominance of those regions are fully consistent with the trade-led growth strategies of these economies and their emphasis on reducing international trade costs.
The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report (APTIR) is a recurrent publication prepared by the Trade and Investment Division of the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It provides information on and independent analyses of trends and developments in: (a) intra- and inter-regional trade in goods and services; (b) foreign direct investment; (c) trade facilitation measures; (d) trade policy measures; and (e) preferential trade policies and agreements.