The analysis followed three previous studies carried out between 2012 and 2014 covering South & Southwest Asia, North & Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, for a total of 27 countries across the continent.
This Staff working paper explores potential synergies in deploying fiber optic cables for data transmission and other infrastructures, chiefly transport and energy. It provides information on the cost of deploying fibre optics, exploring potential win-win strategies in the co-deployment and cohabitation of fibre and transport infrastructure and drawing lessons from good practices in the Asia- Pacific region and beyond. It contains a set of key policy measures to maximize win-win outcomes, which include synergies with the Asian Highway and Trans-Asian Railway.
The Asian Highway database is a joint effort by the secretariat and member countries to monitor the development of the Asian Highway network. The Asian Highway database includes comprehensive and detailed data and information on Asian Highway routes in member countries and benchmarks their development status against the Asian Highway design standards stipulated in Annex II to the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Asian Highway Network.
Bridging Transport, ICT and Energy Infrastructure Gaps for Seamless Regional Connectivity, is a contribution by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to deliberations at the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) in Vienna, Austria, from 3 to 5 November 2014.
As the major supply lines for the Internet, the smooth functioning of the domestic and international long distance telecommunications infrastructure has never been so critical. Formerly based on older technologies such as high frequency (HF) radio links, microwave and satellite communications this infrastructure is now heavily dependant on fiber optic technology.
The analysis revealed that the region is greatly reliant upon trans‐border terrestrial fiber optic connectivity, which places it at a distinct competitive disadvantage relative to coastal markets, which benefit from submarine fiber optic cable systems offering higher capacity, greater cost effectiveness, and more extensive reach than the region’s existing terrestrial connectivity. With the exception of the Russian Federation, none of the countries in this study have oceanic coastlines.
Between late 2012 and mid‐2013, Terabit Consulting performed a detailed analysis of the broadband infrastructure in the nine largest member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Terabit Consulting’s analysis also included trans‐border broadband projects extending into contiguous regions such as Yunnan Province, China.
Funds available from government budgetary allocations are often significantly less than the amount required to maintain the road network of a country. Faced with this problem, governments have taken various alternative measures to secure funding. One of these alternative measures is the establishment of a dedicated road fund. Governments in many countries have set up such funds as a sustainable mechanism for financing the needs of their road sectors.
The institutional structure of the Panchayati Raj, the local self-government system in India, and the implementation of rural development programmes in the context of a participatory approach have been examined in this paper. Although the Panchayati Raj institutions have existed for many years, owing to inherent weaknesses in the systems they were not very effective in the implementation of rural development programmes. Through constitutional amendments a third tier of local self-government has been set up and steps have been taken to remove the inherent shortcomings of the system.