[ Problem Addressed |ESCAP's Role | Beneficiaries | Highlights of Selected
Energy-Efficiency Activities | Follow-up Action ]
Ensuring the availability of clean and affordable energy supplies is indispensable for
economic development, and is a major concern to many developing member countries of ESCAP.
At the same time, concerns
over the negative environmental impacts of inefficient uses of energy are growing, both
globally and regionally. How to abate global warming, seen to be caused by the
accumulation in the atmosphere of "greenhouse gases" arising from combustion of
fossil fuels, is now the subject of international negotiations.
Such concerns require greater national efforts and greater international cooperation to
promote energy efficiency and energy conservation. More efficient energy use can increase
productivity and economic competitiveness as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions per
unit of output.
In the newly industrializing countries of the region, as well as in countries with
economies in transition, the industrial sector accounts for the most rapidly increasing
share and often for the largest share in national energy consumption. In many countries,
technologies and management practices applied in the industrial and energy sectors have
still not reached an optimal level. Local air pollution, emissions of greenhouse gases and
acidification of soil and water can all be reduced if energy and resource conservation
concepts are more widely applied.
To follow up the recommendations on energy of Agenda 21, agreed at the Earth Summit
held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, ESCAP has assisted the developing countries of Asia
and the Pacific to strengthen and implement various approaches, such as:
- policies in the energy and industrial sectors which promote productivity along with
sustainable energy use;
- regulatory frameworks;
- national institution building; and
- skills development and capacity building, particularly among energy managers within
In addressing concerns expressed by member Governments and within the framework of
Agenda 21, ESCAP, with financial support and the services of a JICA expert from the
Government of Japan, has implemented a series of skills-development and capacity-building
projects through "hands-on" training and advisory services. They are mainly
focused on improving energy efficiency --and thus productivity-in energy-intensive,
industrial manufacturing enterprises. The projects were mainly located in the less
industrialized countries of the region, and in countries with economies in transition.
The "ball mill" crushes lime stone (raw material) into fine
powder. From here,the crushed lime stone will be brought to the preheater for further
processing. Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
ESCAP's technical programmes not only provide immediate benefit to their participants,
but are also geared towards a larger long-term benefit: the eventual attainment of
sustainable development. In this respect, achieving environmentally-friendly and
sustainable energy production and energy use is one of the greatest challenges facing the
region at present. Through ESCAP's activities and support, it is hoped that countries of
the region will find it easier to preserve and improve the quality of the environment.
The raw material is blended to ensure a consistent mixture of lime
stone and other material for high quality cement. Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
Curriculum development for cost-effective training of managers
Conservation and efficient use of energy in industry has for a long time been a
priority of the Government of India. In anticipation of enactment of federal legislation
on energy management for industry, the State of Kerala in southern India, in 1998, made
energy audits mandatory for large-scale, energy-consuming industries.
To facilitate the industrial sector's compliance with the new state legislation, the
State of Kerala felt that additional energy-management training was required at the local
level. ESCAP assisted the Energy Management Centre of Kerala early in 1998 to conduct a
two-phase training course for managers.
During the first phase, participants who were mainly senior energy managers were given
guidance on how to conduct self-assessments, energy audits and reports at their respective
facilities, for their respective general management. The second phase was undertaken eight
weeks later with the same group of participants. They presented their reports and the
group discussed each other's conclusions and recommendations. This training approach
proved to be particularly cost-effective, maximizing the active engagement of the
participants. The energy managers' training course had a significant impact by heightening
the awareness of more than 30 participants who already occupied responsible positions in
their enterprises, about the need and potential to save energy.
The training programme strengthened local counterpart agencies, contributed to
institution building, and enabled partners to replicate such training independently,
possibly even on a commercial basis. It also had a positive impact on government-industry
Advisory services and training for efficient energy use in industry
Islamic Republic of Iran
ESCAP's support for the promotion of energy conservation in the Islamic Republic of
Iran serves as another example of concepts applied and results achieved in another part of
the ESCAP region. The two national agencies involved were the Ministry of Energy and its
subsidiary, the Energy Efficiency Organisation.
Cement manufacturing is an essential industry for infrastructure development. It is
highly energy-intensive, requiring a significant amount of natural gas in the production
process. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, 37 establishments are currently producing cement
to meet domestic demand and for export; some of these plants are thought to require urgent
At the request of the Government, ESCAP conducted a demonstration-cum-training,
energy-audit exercise at a selected cement plant. During a two-week period, the ESCAP
advisory team together with its host and counterparts conducted a pre-feasibility
assessment to improve its productivity.
The preliminary findings were presented and discussed at a national seminar organized
for the cement industry by the Ministry of Energy. More than 50 participants took part.
The pre-feasibility assessment concludes with the observation that current production can
be modernized and expanded with simultaneous improvement in energy efficiency. In the
assessment of the experts, energy requirements per unit of output can be significantly
reduced, which will lead to lower air pollution per unit of production and more energy
resources available to realize export earnings.
As a result of the ESCAP project, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has
requested a detailed follow-up study of possibilities for bilateral commercial cooperation
in modernizing its cement plants. This demonstrates that the momentum created by ESCAP
projects can lead to further cooperation or to commercial opportunities with the potential
for further positive and long-term benefit to the global environment.
The Operations Control Room is equipped to monitor and control the
production of 2,000 tons of cement per day. Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
Training courses arranged in India and advisory services rendered to the Islamic
Republic of Iran may be replicated in other countries of the region.
As a result of the energy audit conducted with the Iranian team, it
was recommended to modernize the Suspension Preheater and the Satellite Cooler. The
modification to the level of Japanese plants will result in significant reduction of
production cost and emission level per production unit leading to a more competitive
product and better environment. Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
Additional information on current and planned activities can be obtained from: http://www.unescap.org/enrd/energy/index.htm