i. Conservation, sustainable utilization, and equitable benefit sharing of biological
three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are "the conservation of
biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing
of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate
access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into
account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding."
ii.Economic and institutional factors:The CBD recognizes that the cause
of species and
ecosystem losses are diffuse in nature, involving many sectors. Economic and institutional
factors play important roles in integrating the objectives of the CBD as most effects on
biodiversity result from the secondary consequence of activities such as agriculture, forestry,
fisheries, water supply, transportation, urban development, energy and etc. Management
objectives must incorporate the concerns and aspirations of the many stakeholders involved,
including local communities.
iii. Sovereign rights of States: The general principles of the CBD are the
sovereign rights of
States over their natural resources which are referred to in the preamble, in Articles 3
(Principle) and 15 (Access to genetic resources). Article 3 is basically a reiteration of
Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration, in recognizing that States have the sovereign right
to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies. Article 15
recalls the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources as a basis for the authority to
determine access to genetic resources. The CBD also recognizes in its preamble that the
conservation of biological diversity is a common concern of humankind, which implies a
common responsibility to the issue based on its importance to the international community as
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i. Addressing potential risks in trade of Living Modified Organisms: The Protocol addresses the potential risks posed by international trade and accidental releases of living modified organisms (LMOs), known more commonly as genetically modified organisms, into the environment.
ii. Advanced Informed Agreement: A key component to the operation of the Protocol is the advanced informed agreement procedure for LMOs. The advanced informed agreement system specifies the procedure and type of risk assessment that Parties must follow in deciding whether to accept or restrict importation of LMOs. For seeds, live fish and other LMOs to be intentionally introduced into the environment, the Party exporting the LMO must provide detailed information in a specified period before initial shipment so the recipient country can assess potential risks.
iii. Biosafety Clearing House Mechanism: To facilitate the exchange of information on and experience with LMOs for food imports and agricultural commodities, the Protocol provides a less restrictive control system through the establishment of a Biosafety Clearing House.