Institutional Modality for an Effective EIA Implementation
There are five important phases of EIA related activities:
These activities are important in achieving effective implementation of the EIA process. If there is no institutional setup with specific responsibilities, the objectives as given above are not possible to achieve. While making institutional plans for the implementation of EIA, the issues of decentralization and privatization must not be ignored. Concentration of power and authority in one institution is not desirable, and increased involvement of private sector institutions in the development planning process is a desirable goal. The following institutional modality is therefore required for effective management of EIA implementation.
For effective EIA study there is need to:
The Environmental Division/Section of the concerned Ministries should be well equipped with highly qualified and skillful personnel and they should have the responsibility of:
There is system of constituting a EIA Review and Approval Committee in the Ministry of Environment headed by joint secretary of the Ministry of Environment in order to issue EIA clearance for both private and government projects. Such EIA Committee has the power to:
A number of governmental, semi-governmental and non-governmental organisations are involved in integrating environmental aspects, including EIA in development projects and programmes within their broad institutional functions and responsibilities.
The following section describes the roles and responsibilities of different organisations and these organisations have been grouped into policy-making, advisory, corporate and local bodies. Roles played by the non-governmental organisations have also been included.
The environmental matters should not be looked into in isolation and a single agency could and/or should not take the whole responsibility of environmental management. Because of the multi-sectoral nature of environmental management, inter-ministerial coordination is a must and is also a pre-requisite to make the development project environment-friendly and sustainable. Hence a mechanism should be developed to ensure inter-sectoral coordination along with the clear allocation of responsibility and authority.
Figure 1: Example of coordination flow between and within different inter-ministerial levels
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