II. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS INTO THE POLICY DECISION PROCESS
B. The evolution and existing structure of institutional arrangements for the tea sector in the various ministries and agencies
14. Differences in institutional arrangements between ministries and agencies
From the point of view of the tea sector, significant differences are observed in the institutional arrangements of line ministries and agencies with regard to the purpose of integrating environmental concerns into the policy decision-making process. That diversity has arisen basically because of the nature of the evolutionary processes of institutional structures that had their own primary objectives, which had little or no relationship to environmental issues, at the time they were set up.
Figure 3. Organizational chart of ministries and institutions with functions related to environmental issues in the tea sector
The focus of attention on environmental issues and the creation of CEA as the premier institution to address such issues was relatively late in the evolutionary process. Also the creation of a Cabinet rank Ministry for the subject of environment was even more recent. Another reason for the diversity is that in Sri Lanka a number of institutions exercise authority over the management of the natural resources.
The recent decentralization of administration to the provinces and the creation of the Provincial Councils has added to the complexity of institutional arrangements, particularly because the subject of "the environment" is on the Concurrent List of subjects; that means implementation authority is exercised by both the central government and the Provincial Councils. The only common feature in the institutional structures are the Environmental Cells created in the development ministries and agencies designated by CEA as PAAs for the purpose of implementing the EIA process.
In view of the diversity of institutional structures and functions, effective coordination mechanisms are vital to the integration of policy decision-making processes. Those mechanisms are covered in chapter III.