III. ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES OF MEASURES BEING USED AT THE SECTOR LEVEL INTEGRATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
B. Types of measures
EPA allows for environmental planning through a process of submission and approval of environmental plans. The Act legally requires the submission of an environmental plan for proposed projects, and it outlines the procedures for an assessment and decision-making. EPA provides a mechanism within which an ex ante appraisal of a project can be carried out in order to prevent or minimize adverse social and environmental impacts. In cases where an adverse impact is expected, the Act requires the developer to clearly indicate ways in which those impacts can be mitigated.
ECA controls the licensing of discharges of contaminants into the environment, and the importation, exportation, disposal and handling of hazardous substances. The intent of ECA is to ensure environmental quality by means of a system of licensing and standards. A feature of that Act is a Register of Hazardous Environmental Contaminants for controlling the use of hazardous substances. Included in the Act are powers of inspection and penalties against indiscriminate disposal of contaminants and other matter such as litter and broken glass.
The Water Resources Act, which regulates the discharge of wastes into water bodies and the use of water for industrial purposes, is aimed at controlling water quality and achieving water conservation. The Mining and Petroleum Acts, which regulate the operation of the mining and petroleum projects, allow the State to assess the possible social and environmental impacts of new mining and petroleum projects before they proceed.