A. Good governance, institutions and legislation
The relationship between institutional development and environmental issues arises from the increasing acceptance that the environment is a common property. Therefore mechanisms for collective action are required. There is growing recognition that a major cause of environmental degradation is the lack of good governance and local institutions. A principal obstacle to sustainable development is not so much the absence of legislation as the absence of good institutions through which the laws can be implemented effectively and consistently. Similarly, the problem is not the absence of policies but the absence of institutional capacity to execute policies efficiently.
The institutions in NWFP need to be strengthened and their capacities enhanced. Their regulations and procedures are often outdated, and are vulnerable to political abuse and manipulation. There is a lack of coordination and capacity for environmental planning and management is limited. Those who have undergone international training are very often transferred to field offices or other locations. The technical staff are inadequately qualified in the latest environmental tools and techniques. The biggest constraints to SPCS and NCS implementation is the lack of institutional capacity and expertise. For example, the requirement in NWFP for persons with some training in EIA is estimated at 1,300. That is a conservative estimate, assuming that in addition to training staff from the Planning, Environment and Development Department, one person per administrative department and one person per district attached to each department will suffice.