III. CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION PROJECT IN MALAKAND DIVISION OF NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE
B. Environmental rehabilitation project
A gradual breakdown of social institutions at the local level has led to an "open access" situation in the forests and rangeland of the province, where each person tries to harvest as much as possible before anyone else does so. Individual grabbing of resources for quick profit from land owned by anyone has resulted in severe environmental degradation including natural forest areas, wildlife, communal hillsides and rivers. In the project area more than 20 per cent of the dense forest areas have become degraded or lost during the past 30 years. Free grazing and hunting have resulted in heavily degraded rangeland and seriously depleted the wildlife. Revived community organizations and the acceptance of rules and sanctions regarding the use of resources are necessary if the process of degradation is to be stopped. In order to improve the present state of environment in the region, it is essential that the rehabilitation process involves the local population in decision-making through the application of the "social fencing concept". The present and future generations of the population will all need to find a sustainable way of making a living. The forests and rangeland are important in that they provide: (a) socio-economic and environmental value; (b) water for irrigation and the sustenance of village life; (c) scenic beauty for recreation and tourism; (d) water catchment protection; (e) biodiversity conservation; (f) a potential for genetic resources; and (g) sources of creativity and, according to the beliefs of many local villagers, mystical powers.