II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF UNSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
A. Major green environmental problems and causes
In NWFP the most serious green and brown problems have been caused by unsustainable exploitation of existing natural resources and the rapid growth of population. The major issues are deforestation, range-land degradation, soil erosion, groundwater depletion, drought and floods, waterlogging and salinity in irrigated areas, declining land productivity, desertification, depletion of water resources, air pollution, solid waste pollution, rural urban migration (growth of slums and squatter settlements). Poverty itself is the greatest cause of pollution, since it pushes people into marginal subsistence and unsustainable activities. The poor marginalized communities are exerting pressure on ecologically fragile upland areas and contributing to the expansion of urban settlements in the lowland areas, particularly on prime agriculture land. The problems are being made worse by adverse socio-cultural, economic and political factors, a lack of environmental consideration in development planning, and the failure to apply new environmental technologies and methods in development projects.