V. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
A. Institutional systems for environmental management and socio-economic development planning in China
1. Institutional system of socio-economic and social development planning in China
(a) Planning system in China
China has established planning systems from the national to the local level, with a Planning Commission responsible in charge of formulating plans for each level. Other departments related to such activities participate in the planning. The four main planning systems are national, provincial, city and county. The basic planning system is illustrated in figure 21.
The State Planning Commission is in charge of formulating the National Development Plan and submitting the draft to the State Council. The plan is then submitted to the National People's Congress for examination, discussion and approval.
A Planning Commission is a functional governmental agency. Under government guidance, each Planning Commission is responsible for formulating a development plan. Each Planning Commission takes into consideration recommendations by relevant departments and sub-governments when formulating a development plan.
(b) Planning levels
There are at least four types of plans (figure 22), all of which involve interaction between the various levels.