III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
A small-scale research for the urban construction information system was carried out in Shanghai in 1987. It is a comprehensive information system which has multi-layered structures. It is based on GIS and functions for scientific planning, construction and administration. Led by the Shanghai construction commission and organized by the Shanghai urban construction information system office, this programme was designed with inputs by 14 units, including mapping, underground pipelines, planning, municipality, land administration, real estate, transportation, electricity, telecommunications, environment and sanitation, environmental protection, water supply, coal gas supply and land administration. The system functions at two administrative levels. The first provides a service to the general public, the second services the construction commission, serving the urban administration directly. The experiment was carried out in a 2 sq km area of Putuo District and completed in October l991. Through this research, the standard of urban geographical information was formulated, making information-sharing possible. Moreover, it demonstrated the tremendous potential of using information systems to administrate a modern city. In 1993, Shanghai organized and embarked upon a modest experiment using the urban construction information system with a sanitary information system as one subsystem of it. It was carried out in Huangpu District and took a period of 3 years to successfully complete.
The cleanliness and safety of the sanitary environment is one symbol of urban civilization. The Shanghai Sanitary Bureau is responsible for collecting, disposing and transporting urban living matter and rubbish and clearing the urban streets everyday. This job is very difficult to systematically administer. The Information Center of Shanghai Sanitary Bureau has established the sanitary database while completing the routine statistical database of the city's sanitary system. The data administration and analysis are carried out by GIS (figure 56).
Figure 56. The GlS-based Shanghai Sanitation Information System
The system memorized about 50 thousand data attributes of 1,059 sanitary points, which included rubbish collecting points, cesspools, manure-storage pools, public toilets, dung pouring stations, docks used for sanitary purposes, rubbish-transferring stations, rubbish-stores of high-rise buildings, and road clearing and other road facilities. Every kind of sanitary point provides detailed data attributes. For example, the sanitary has 46 data attributes. The Information Center cooperates with the sanitary bureau of each district to establish data-follow-up mechanisms. The sanitary bureau of each district uses a uniform formulation to gather their information about environment and sanitation, then send them to the Information Center via diskettes twice each year so that the veracity of the data of the sanitary information can be assured.
Figure 57. The distribution of public toilets in Huangpu and the coverage within 250 m
Supported by the self-contained sanitary information database, the system provides an agile data-inquiry function which include bi-direction inquiry based on both figure and attribute, completes the sanitary information statistics, provides a primary analyzing function and supports routine decisions (figure 58). For example, the manager will find any inadequate areas of sanitary distribution in the city easily and improve them after the coverage of sanitary has been created. As another example, when it shows the rubbish-collecting and transporting routine of the rubbish collective point, it will be very clear whether the routine arrangement is reasonable or not. This system is very suitable for administrative work because of its straightforward operative steps and user-friendly interface, which is a large step towards the modernization sanitary work.
Figure 58. Indexing through the inquiry mode
The experiment with the sanitary information system in Huangpu District provides effective evidence that administrative modernization is essential for urban modernization. The investment of science and technology is by far the best approach to secure favourable economic, social and ecological benefits. The Shanghai sanitary information system actualizes the transition from the relative static operative mode to a dynamic monitoring and administrative mode. With more refinement, it will be able also to master the quantity and direction of the clearing and transportation of urban living rubbish. Undoubtedly, it will be beneficial in creating a more attractive and suitable urban appearance and promoting the sustainable development of Shanghai in the 21st century.