III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
[ III-A | III-B | III-C | III-D | III-E | III-F | III-G | III-H ]
D. Land use in Shanghai
[ D | D-1 | D-2 | D-3 | D-4 ]
3. Land use in Pudong New Area
The size of Pudong New Area in 522 sq km, and its land use structure is similar to that of the whole city (figure 42). The nine streets (administrative unit equal to a town) is the most intensively urbanized area. Only 31.1 sq km in area, with a population of 653,200, it has a population density of 21,000 people/sq km. Residential homes account for 43.28 per cent of the total area, industry accounts for 23.89 per cent, and transportation 13.385 per cent.
Figure 41a. Land use of Shanghai central city in 1958
Figure 41b. Land use of Shanghai central city in 1984
Figure 41c. Land use of Shanghai central city in 1996
Figure 42. The land use structure in Pudong New Area
These nine streets cover only 6 per cent of the total area of Pudong New Area. However, 58.18 per cent of total commercial and financial land, 24.56 per cent of industrial land, 23.62 per cent of public facilities, 17.61 per cent of transportation and 13.8% of residences are amassed here, causing a sharp contrast between urban and rural parts (figure 43).
Figure 43. Spatial difference between various land uses
(b) Dynamic changes in land use
Figure 44. Land use changes in the original urban area in Pudong New Area
Figure 45. Land use changes in the original suburbs in Pudong New Area
- (i) Structural change
The percentages of land use types such as commerce and finance, industry, municipal facilities, residences and transportation have increased, by comparison with land use in November, 1988 and in March, 1993 (figures 44, 45, and 46). The land used for residences, transportation and on-building sites has shown the greatest growth which indicates that urbanization is speeding up in Pudong. Large areas of non-urban type land are changing to urban type. 28.43 sq km of farmland disappeared, accounting for 11 per cent of the total farmland area which is 254.23 sq km, while the water area decreased by 27 per cent, from 48 sq km in 1988 to 3 5 sq km in 1993.
Figure 46. General land use change in Pudong New Area
Figure 47a. Urbanization classes in Pudong New Area in 1993
Figure 47b. Urbanization classes in Pudong New Area in 1988
- The Yangtze Delta boasts a dense water system with an average density of is more than 2km/sq km. The correct ratio of land against water was generated by long-standing agricultural cultivation. However, the traditional mode of eco-agriculture seems to have been forgotten nowadays in the on-rush of urbanization. To protect the farm land, to inherit and develop traditional eco-agriculture emphasizing regional characteristics is definitely helpful in adding sustainability to urban development, it is worth noting.
(ii) Rapidly accelerating urbanization
A ratio Su - dividing the sum of area of urban-type land uses by the total area of a region - is applied to reflect the degree of urbanization. In the case of Shanghai, this is categorized into six classes according to the value of Su:
The sum of the area of urban-type land use in Pudong is 186.75 sq km, thus we have the overall Su-0.36, which indicates a degree of half urbanization. However, a strong internal variation is noticeable in Pudong. For example, the Su of the nine streets reaches 0.93, which shows that these areas are completely urbanized, while in the towns, this figure is only 0.57 on average - well urbanized, and in villages, it decreases to an average of 0.32.
- non-urbanization Su <= 0.15
- slight urbanization O.15 < Su <= 0.10
- half urbanization 0.30 < Su <= 0.50
- well urbanization 0.50 < Su <= 0.70
- strong urbanization 0.70 < Su <= 0.90
- complete urbanization Su > 0.90
Compared to the land use in 1988, we conclude that urbanization in Pudong has been accelerating during the past five years. The overall Su increased from 0.24 to 0.36, which means that 11 sq km each year is urbanized. Figures 47a and 47b illustrate the internal variation of urbanization in Pudong.