III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
D. Land use in Shanghai
2. Land use in the central city
The central city consists of ten districts which are Huangpu, Nanshi, Luwan, Jing'an, Xuhui, Changning, Putuo, Zhabei, Hongkou and Yangpu. The total area is 280.8 sq km, the population reaches 6,403,400 and the population density is therefore 22,682 people/sq km.
(a) Quantitative structure
The quantitative structure of land use in the central city indicates the most striking problems in the urban development.
(b) Spatial structure
A ring structure is also detected in the central city (figure 40). The core is the CBD and its surrounding area, where the land is used mainly for administration, business and residences. Neither shack dwellers nor factories are located here. The first ring is located between the inner ring road and the core, where industrial blocks mixed with residential quarters are the common landscape. Shack dwellers also gather here.
The existence of the industrial blocks is relic of the large number of factories established in the Settlements before 1949, but also results from the strategy after 1949 which emphasized a heavy development of industry - the factories were allowed to stay in the city using every possible bit of land. At present, except for a small number of urban industries, most factories must be relocated outside the urban area thus giving impetus to the development of the tertiary sector. Xinhua Road in Changning district and the Hetian Road in Zhabei District once accommodated two industrial blocks which were notorious for the severe pollution they generated. However, after comprehensive environmental harnessing, machines were moved away, chimneys were removed, wastewater and waste residue were never seen anywhere again, and luxurious business centres with graceful green spaces dotted between them have been planned and developed.
The second ring, between the inner ring road and the outer ring road, can be divided into two parts. The inner part is the urban fringe, filled with newly-built residential quarters and industrial zones after 1949. In contrast to those in the urban area, the residential quarters and industrial zones here are separated. The outer part is the urban/rural fringe, always under the threat of urban expansion. The original vegetable land gradually withdraw outwards, allowing newly-developed residential and industrial land to be allocated along main transportation routes.
Figure 40. The spatial structure of land use in Shanghai central city
(c) Spatio-temporal change of land use
Comparison of land use in the central city in 1958, 1984 and 1996 demonstrates that the growth of industrial blocks has stepped from youth into old age. Market economies as well as a deeper recognition of environmental protection are urging factories to leave urban areas through land exchange. On one hand, industrial enterprises obtain precious capital; for further development; on the other, a proper architecture of three sectors could therefore be achieved which will in turn promote the deepening of urbanization. As the process advances, the environmental problems which have perplexed Shanghai for many years are expected to be alleviated.
Environmental problems are not isolated. On the contrary, they are deep-rooted in development. Yet, while it is development that causes most of the environmental problems, it is also development that can solve them. The only possible answer is sustainable development. From the viewpoint of land use change, Shanghai, having identified the intrinsic issue in the relationship between development and environment, is now proceeding towards sustainability.