III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
D. Land use in Shanghai
1. Status of land use in the whole cityThe area of Shanghai totals 6,340.5 sq km. The structure of land use, according to the land use map drawn from an aero survey conducted in 1993-1994, is shown in figure 36.. Its characteristics are as follows:
Figure 36. The land use structure in the whole city
Figure 37. The land use structure in the central city
Figure 38. The land use structure in the four suburban districts
The second class can be identified in the near suburban districts of Jiading, Jinshan, Minghang and Pudong New Area, where the total land area is 1,776.93 sq km. The land use structure in this part is shown by figure 38. Originally the suburban area, these districts are now the urban fringe where 64 per cent of ongoing construction land is densely distributed. However, the rural land use structure is still clear - all types of urban land use account for only one third of the total, agricultural land and water occupying the remaining two thirds. In general, the urbanization process is accelerating in this region.
The third class, typical rural structure, remains in the far suburbs which is composed of six counties (figure 39). Urban land use types cover less than one fourth of the total area in this part. Agricultural land and water occupy 78.7 per cent.
Figure 39. The land use structure in the six suburban counties
The land use structure of Shanghai clearly shows that its urban development has been strongly shaped by the accumulative process, thus forming the overall spatial structure - a large city with small suburbs. Thus situation, accommodating such a large population and with a huge economic infrastructure, is obviously unfavourable for Shanghai in transforming itself into an international metropolis. By comparison, many world famous metropolises have passed the accumulative urbanization process, are experiencing suburbanization or counter-urbanization, therefore forming megalopolises with explicit functions and close interrelationships between the grouping cities. A large city with large suburbs should be the ideal pattern of urbanization for Shanghai. During the First Five-Year Plan period, specialized industrial zones were established in the near suburbs. In the Second Plan period, industrialized satellite towns were set up in the far suburbs, such as Wusong, Minhang, Wujing, An'ting, Jiading and Songjiang. During the 1970s, large-scale satellite towns - Jinshan and Baoshan for petrochemical and steel industries - were developed. All these efforts had to a certain extent helped to disperse the population and industry crowded in the central city, and demonstrated a correct understanding of the ideal spatial pattern of urban development. However, due to relatively low social productivity and insufficient economic strength, infrastructure and public facilities in these satellite towns did not catch up with the shifts in industry and population. Moreover, communications between the central city and the satellite towns were choked, thus hindering the further development of the latter. The growth of a sound town system therefore withered.
The new mode for development adopted by Pudong New Area - clustered,
multi-cored and open patterned, embodies the general law in the growth
of a metropolis. Those clusters and cores are becoming the growth poles
along the urban-rural fringe, promoting the progress of suburbanization.
However, priority in intensively improving urban infrastructure must be
taken into account, because the current volumes of public facilities, municipal
utilities and green area together cover only 1 per cent of the total area
of the four suburb districts and six suburb counties. This is still far
from meeting the needs of the constant advance of urbanization in this