III. ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND URBAN PLANNING
B. Urban comprehensive environmental harnessing
4. Steps forwardSince the commencement of reform and opening up, comprehensive environmental harnessing or control in Shanghai has made great progress. As urbanization entered into a new stage, investment for environmental protection was greatly increased, industrial structures and allocations were adjusted, urban functions were revamped and the service sector received greater investment as environmental protection began to coordinate with economic development. The investment in environmental protection, which was about 2 per cent of GDP in 1993, 1994 and 1995, is expected to increase to 3 per cent during the Ninth Five Year Plan period. Those environmental infrastructure projects such as the Shanghai Sewage Project, the Water Transferring Project Phase I from the upper reaches of the Huangpu River, the Water Transferring Project from the Yangtze River, the urban gas project, the urban tap water project, the viaduct project, and the subway project, have been completed along with the implementation of environmental control projects such as “quiet streets”, “zones without black smoke”, and “zones with smoke and dust under control”. The methodologies adopted in environmental protection have begun to shift from scattered management to focused plus diverging management; from concentration on management alone to all-embracing management from end-of-pipe control to management throughout the entire producing process.
In the last ten years, 450 million Yuan has been invested m the areas along XinHua road and 407 pollution-harnessing or control projects have been completed. 25 factories were closed or moved to the suburbs. As a result, smoke and dust emissions decreased by 25.2 per cent, from 1.33 billion m3 in 1985 to 0.997 billion m3 in 1993. Waste gas decreased by 90.2 per cent, from 3.2 billion m3 in 1985 to 0.31 billion m3 in 1993, and the volume of waste gas emissions by every ten thousand industrial output decreased by 78.3 per cent. Wastewater discharge decreased by 50.7 per cent, from 20.848 million m3 in 1985 to 10.278 million m3 in 1993, and the volume of wastewater discharge by every ten thousand industrial output decreased by 63 per cent. There is no heavy smoke, wastewater, or foul odour tainting this area which has been developed into beautiful, quiet and clean residential quarters.
In HeTian road, after eight years of effort, 14 factories were moved elsewhere, and waste water and waste gas were decreased by 42 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. More than 90 million Yuan was invested to control local environmental pollution, 232 such projects were completed and production in 22 factories causing heavy pollution was stopped. 195 million Yuan was invested in constructing buildings, for which the total construction area was 186.3 thousand m2, to accommodate 2,307 families. l,516 m of drainage piping and one pumping station was constructed, and its discharge capacity is able to meet the demand for draining off accumulated rainwater when rainstorms occur. By these efforts, many environmental problems were solved, such as the high density of industrial land, heavy environmental pollution, aging infrastructure, narrow roads, limited green areas, and polluted rivers, so preparing the ground for further development.
In the past, forests of chimneys were the symbols of industrialization
and urbanization. Now more than 100 chimneys are removed each year in Shanghai.
The prosperous scene represented by roaring machines and heavy smoke is
being replaced by green cover, birds’ singing and flowers giving forth
their fragrance. It is expected that in the near future Shanghai will develop
into a city with a good ecological environment, in contrast with its industrialized
image of the past.