I. URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
E. Suburbanization in Shanghai
1. Suburbanization of population and residents
Suburbanization is the urbanization of suburb areas triggered by the dispersion of the functions of the central city. Since all city functions disperse with population migration, the suburbanization of population is regarded as one of the most important indices of suburbanization.
The population of the central city proper of Shanghai has been declining since the 1980s. There were 5,727,000 people in 1982 and 5,529,000 in 1993, a decrease of 4.3 per cent. Population decreases also differed within the city and especially in the four hub districts of Huangpu, Nanshi, Luwan and Jingan where the average decrease was over 10 per cent.-
At the same time the population in the immediate suburbs increased quickly from 1,529,700 in 1982 to 2,812,000 in 1993, a change of 83.8 per cent, and the streets and towns outside the centre of the city had the highest increase of over 100 per cent. For example in Hongkou the rate was 400% and in Zhabei 694.5 %. But in the outer suburbs, the natural population increase still dominated.
Population migration in Shanghai has shifted from the central city to the suburbs and the residential functions of the city were quite active in the suburbs. Many large-scale residential quarters were built there, and real estate companies constructed many houses and villas for sale. For example, of all the construction area of commodity houses in 1992, only 17.0 per cent was in the four central districts, 38.9 per cent was in the six outer districts and 44 per cent was in the suburb towns. Thus the migration of population and living activities invigorated the urban functions in the suburbs.