III. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS INTO DECISION- MAKING FOR FLOOD LOSS REDUCTION
The National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) is a plan of the Government of Bangladesh prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF, 1995) in consultation with people from all walks of life and published in 1995. Development of NEMAP was undertaken with the objectives of identifying key environmental issues, conserving nature, reducing environmental degradation, promoting sustainable development and generally raising the quality of human life. It has been developed in three phases over the period 1992 to 1994. All actions as outlined in the plan have been grouped under the following heads
The types of actions have been divided into three categories: (a) advocacy, (b) policy, and (c) specific projects.
The NEMAP has identified the key environmental issues in various sectors including water resources. Inadequate planning of the FCDI projects and failure to consider their wider impacts has, in some cases, led to environmental degradation; poor drainage of wetlands, flooding, water logging, siltation and salinization (MOEF, 1995). Some of the solutions that have been suggested are excavation of water bodies, provision for adequate culverts and bridges for the flow of flood water, taking flood proof measures, providing compensation for project-affected people, etc. It has suggested design review of FCDI projects taking environmental concerns into consideration. It also emphasizes that consideration of cross-sectoral environmental issues should be ensured, and recommends developing institutional capacity within Planning Cells to incorporate environmental concerns with an on-going coordination role with MOEF. The Department of Environment (DOE), as the technical agency of the MOEF, looks after environmental planning, management, monitoring and enforcement.