III. ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES OF MEASURES BEING USED AT THE SECTOR LEVEL INTEGRATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
C. Evaluation of effectiveness of each measure
The Mining and Petroleum Acts, which seek to regulate mining and petroleum operations in Papua New Guinea, have been transformed into policies which regulate the exploration and mining of mineral resources in the country. The legislative requirements of the Acts allow the State to assess the environmental consequences of new mining and petroleum developments, and then require the monitoring and control of any pollution subsequently produced. The major limitation on the effectiveness of the Acts is the lack of financial and human resources. The Department of Mining and Petroleum, which is responsible for administering the Acts, has to compete with the private sector for trained personnel. At the same time, the uncompetitive conditions of service in the public sector have turned the retention of skilled staff into a major problem. Simply put, there are inadequate numbers of personnel for monitoring and enforcing the environmental regulations. Therefore, to a large extent, mining companies are compelled by the circumstances to engage in self-regulation and monitoring, in order to satisfy the conditions of the Acts.