B. Trained manpower and financial resources
There is a shortage of trained personnel, equipment and financial resources for the planning offices, which adversely affects institutional capacity. Training in the principles of development planning is inadequate, particularly at the regional/district level, and there is a lack of understanding of new approaches and techniques such GIS/remote sensing and EIA among officials dealing with planning activities. The result is confusion, duplication, wastage of resources and unsustainable development. Therefore, an intensive training programme should be arranged for staff from the Planning, Environment and Development Department, EPA, other line departments, local institutions and NGOs at the local and national levels, as well as opportunities for further study abroad, for periods of three to six months in the fields of environmental planning and IEE/EIA/GIS/remote sensing methodologies. Local universities and NIPA can contribute a great deal in that regard. Local bodies and institutions, such as the Manshera district council and ERP, have been very successful in increasing their budgets by levying local taxes and attracting participation by the local population in order to qualify for matching grants for local level projects. Those institutions should therefore be strengthened and encouraged to overcome their financial problems; that continues to be a major obstacle in developing countries like Pakistan when attempting to achieve sustainable development.