VII. ISSUES AND PROBLEMS: SOME POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
G. Environmental network
While urban environmental problems are cross-sectoral in nature, most of the planning and investment work is still carried on a sector basis (industry, water supply and sanitation etc.). In addition, policies formulated at different levels (i.e., national and State) have an impact on urban activities and environmental quality. To overcome coordination problems among the various parties involved, be it government agencies, the public sector, the private sector, community groups or the media, a network should be developed by holding regular meetings and consultations. Building such a platform will make it possible to discuss the scope of city programmes and progress. That approach can build public awareness and consolidate public participation for good environmental management through individual efforts.
ALIGN="JUSTIFY"> The various parties should be further mobilized to increase public awareness of the key environmental problems and also the strategies and actions necessary to overcoming them. Attempts must be made to emphasize the fact that environmental problems are connected and that society must end its practice of making others pay the cost of environmental deterioration. One of the governing principles that ensure such a practice is that polluters must pay. Wherever possible, the cost of cleaning up should be charged to an identifiable responsible individual or group.
The government can also explore other options such as using other laws and regulations, including licensing requirements, to achieve its goals. Another option that can be explored further is the granting of economic incentives in the form of energy and environmental taxes and subsidies for industries to test new ways of doing business.
Through the introduction of such strategies the general hope is that environmental management can be shifted from the command and control approach of traditional environmental laws toward a structure that promotes sustainable development through economic incentives, social institutions and self-regulations.