V. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
J. Policy recommendations
The effective implementation of environmental protection laws and regulations are directly affected by macro policies and control measures. National environmental policies and measures may promote the strength of local environmental institutions in the implementation of environmental laws and regulations. For example, the national decision to ban 15 small types of plant that caused serious pollution greatly stimulated local efforts to close plants that fell within that category. However, the vertical coordination of environmental institutions is limited at the local level, and State measures and macro policies can make it difficult for local environmental protection authorities to act. Therefore, the strength of national policies and measures directly affects local implementation of environmental laws and regulation. In summary, central environment policies and measures should be strengthened.
The local government institutional structure needs to be reformed in order to improve vertical coordination of environment management and enable the vertical management system to effectively carry out in administration and vocational work. The county and district environmental protection bureaux should come under the direct responsibility of the Shenyang Environmental Protection Bureau, while the district and county environmental protection departments should become its branch bureaux.
Establishment of an interagency, cross-sectoral coordinating working group may enable environmental considerations to be integrated into economic development planning. That would reduce or eliminate conflicts between environmental, economic and social development requirements. The working group could coordinate and monitor implementation of the action plan. New mechanisms of collaboration and coordination may be set up in both the private and public sectors.
The working group could address environmental problems and act as a mechanism for coordination and collaboration. It should comprise representatives from the government, non-government agencies and the private sector. Creating the mechanism would enable effective utilization of existing institutions in the integration of environmental considerations into development planning and economic decision-making.
By using local laws and regulations, coordinating relationships can be set up among the environmental protection bureaux, the Traffic Administration, Industry and Commerce Administration, Planning and Land Administration, Public Security Bureau and Health Bureau in Shenyang city. Such a strategy would also assist in the integration of environmental considerations into economic development planning and decision-making.