I. PROCESS OF URBANIZATION AND CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
A. Embryonic form of the city
The Shenshui River valley was inhabited as far back as 5,200 years BC. The remains of the "Shenyang Xinle" show that those early inhabitants, known as Shenyang Xinle Man, lived in a primitive clan in a favorable natural environment.
In the final years of the Warring States period, about 300 BC, the State of Yan opened up east Liaoning and established the Prefecture of Liaodong, with Shenyang under its jurisdiction. From then on, the advanced culture and production technology of the central China plain were introduced into the Shenyang area. At that time, the residents were mainly garrison troops and the administration was the station system. The defensive city wall and moat were the first formations of a town settlement in the area.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, ancient Shenyang city was serving both as the political power capital for feudal emperors and as a commercial metropolis for the public. It had a complete urban district layout, and the palace, temples, courtyards and dwellings inside and outside the city had a distinctive style that provided a rather grand appearance. In addition, the city performed many functions. It served as the political, military, economic and cultural centre of north-eastern China, and stimulated the development of the surrounding towns and settlements. During that period, the pattern of towns and settlements in the Shenyang area appeared in an embryonic form. With regard to environmental pollution discharges as a byproduct of industrialization, environmental quality changes were closely associated with industrialization. Since Shenyang was in a traditional agricultural society and had no industry worth mentioning during the Qing Dynasty, there was no industrial pollution. Shenyang City was in a pollution-free or low pollution (mainly from household wastes) state at that time.